Dulwich Picture Gallery II

RKD STUDIES

Pieter WOUWERMAN II

Haarlem, baptised 13 September 1623–Amsterdam, buried 9 May 1682
Dutch painter and draughtsman


Pieter Wouwerman II was a brother of the more famous Philips Wouwerman (1619–68); like him, his name was sometimes spelt Wouwermans. He presumably took lessons from his father Pouwels Joostensz. Wouwerman (c. 1580/85–1642), his brother, and from the landscape painter Roelant Roghman (1627–91/2). Although no work is definitively ascribed to him, there are some paintings that are very close to Philips’s work but not by him. On that basis a small œuvre of some twenty works has been constructed.

LITERATURE
Van Thiel-Stroman 2006m; Ecartico, no. 8427: http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/8427 (May 20, 2018); RKDartists&, no. 85691: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/85691 (May 20, 2018).


Attributed to Pieter Wouwerman
DPG34 – Sandhills with Figures

17th century; canvas, 24.1 x 36 cm
Companion piece of DPG36


PROVENANCE
Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 30, nos 316/317 (‘Unhung / nos 47/48, Landscapes with figures - C[anvas] “P.L.” called Wouvermans’; 1'3" x 1'7" (dimensions of each picture).

REFERENCES
Cat. 1817;1 Haydon 1817;2 Cat. 1820, p. 6, no. 80 or 84 (‘Peter Wouvermans’); Cat. 1830, no. 63 or 64 (Wouwerman); Jameson 1842, ii, p. 453, nos 63 and 64;3 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 343;4 Denning 1858, no. 63 (John (?) Wouvermans);5 Denning 1859, no. 63 (Philip Wouwermans); Sparkes 1876, p. 209, no. 63; Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 192, no. 64 (Pieter Wouwerman);6 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 8, no. 34; Cook 1914 and 1926, p. 21, no. 34; Cat. 1953, p. 44; Murray 1980a, p. 142; Murray 1980b, p. 31; Beresford 1998, p. 270 (follower of Wouwermans); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 308–9 (attributed to Pieter Wouwerman); RKD, no. 289768: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289768 (May 21, 2018).

EXHIBITION
Hatchlands 1994, n.p., no. 34 (A. Sumner; ‘One of a pair of pictures originally ascribed to the more celebrated Philips Wouwermans (1619–1668), but in fact by his less talented younger brother, who took advantage of his shared initials and imitated his subject matter’).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Coarse plain-weave linen canvas. Glue-paste lined. The lining is now fairly stiff and there is some damage to the original canvas at the corners. The texture of the canvas is noticeable through the paint layers, particularly in the foreground. The painted area of the canvas is a little smaller than the stretcher and the edges are made-up and retouched. There is a loss in the lower-left corner and some areas of light abrasion to the paint surface. The paint is slightly cupped but secure and the craquelure is distracting in the lighter passages: it has been roughly retouched in parts. There is an old restoration along the right edge of the canvas that has blanched in the sky. This painting is less worn than its pair. Previous recorded treatment: 1867, ‘revived’ and revarnished; 1953–5, Dr Hell.

RELATED WORKS
1) Philips Wouwerman, Dune Landscape, monogrammed ‘PH W’, 1650–55, panel, 18.5 x 22.5 cm. Private collection.7

DPG34
attributed to Pieter Wouwerman (II)
Sandhills with figures, 1640-1682
canvas, oil paint 24,1 x 36 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG34


DPG34

DPG36


Attributed to Pieter Wouwerman
DPG36 – Sandbank with Travellers

Signed, lower right: PH [? – PW according to Sumner 1994] (in monogram)
17th century; canvas, 24.1 x 36 cm
Companion piece of DPG34


PROVENANCE
See DPG34.

REFERENCES
See DPG34; RKD, no. 289769: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289769 (May 21, 2018).

EXHIBITION
Hatchlands 1994, n.p., no. 36 (A. Sumner; ‘Pendant to no. 34’).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Plain-weave linen canvas. Glue-paste lined. The paint is cupped but secure, and there is a small deformation in the canvas plane at the lower left corner. The paint layer is worn, especially in the foliage and the central figure: the abraded look of the paint surface is worsened by the fact that it has previously been semi-cleaned. There is some discoloured restoration in the sky. Previous recorded treatment: 1867, ‘revived’ and revarnished; 1952–5, Dr Hell.

RELATED WORKS
See DPG34.

DBP34 and DPG36 are competently produced pictures in the style of Philips Wouwerman, if somewhat pedestrian in composition. They were often given to that artist in the 19th century, but as early as 1817 Cockburn doubted the attribution, and suggested ‘Peter Wouvermans’ – Pieter Wouwerman, the younger brother of Philips. Denning in 1858 said ‘John Wouvermans’; he changed that a year later to Philip, adding, ‘They are not like the other pictures of this master in the Gallery, having been evidently painted at that period when he imitated his master Wynants’. In 1880 Richter and Sparkes suggested that the pictures might be by Pieter, noting a ‘PW’ in monogram at the lower right of DPG36. In 1980 the attribution was repeated by Murray, who noted similar pictures attributed to that artist in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge,8 but in 1998 Beresford challenged Richter’s reading of the monogram, asserting that it might instead be ‘PH’. Since so little research has been carried out on Pieter Wouwerman’s œuvre or the followers of Philips Wouwerman it seems impossible at the moment to establish who created the pair. For a comparable dune landscape by Philips Wouwerman, see Related works, no. 1.

The pictures first appear in the 1813 inventory of Bourgeois’ collection. Murray suggested that DPG34 may be the ‘Wouermans – A Landscape with a Traveller giving Charity to poor Peasants’ that was offered for sale as part of Desenfans’ collection at Skinner and Dyke, London, on 28 November 1795 (lot 93). Arguing against that is that there is no mention there of a pair, and the figure on horseback here is not giving charity but only seems to be preparing to do so.

DPG36
attributed to Pieter Wouwerman (II)
Sandbank with travellers, c. 1640-1682
canvas, oil paint 24,1 x 36 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG36


Attributed to Pieter Wouwerman
DPG193 – Halt of Sportsmen

17th century; oak panel, 30.8 x 36.5 cm
Remnants of a wax seal on the back


PROVENANCE
Paillet, Paris, 15 Dec. 1777 (Lugt 2754), lot 13 (810 frs);9 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 1, no. 9 (‘Small parlour / no. 8, Halt of Travellers - 2 horses &c in Lande – C[anvas] – Wouvermans’; 1'9" x 2'.

REFERENCES
Cat. 1817, p. 8, no. 127 (‘SECOND ROOM – West side; A Landscape, with Horses and Figures; Wouvermans’); Haydon 1817, p. 381, no. 127;10 Cat. 1820, p. 8, no. 127; Smith 1829–42, i (1829), p. 241, no. 137 (‘Collection of M. Paillet 1777 810 fs. 32l.’); Cat. 1830, p. 5, no. 65; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 65, no. 65; Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 65 (Peter Wouvermans and Ascribed to Philip Wouwermans);11 Sparkes 1876, pp. 209–10, no. 65 (ascribed to Wouwerman); Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 189, no. 65 (Philips Wouwerman; ‘An early work of the master’); Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 51, no. 193; HdG, ii, 1908, p. 456, no. 660 (and possibly 677d; Engl. edn 1909, p. 461); Cook 1914, pp. 122–3, no. 193; Cook 1926, pp. 122–3, no. 193; Cat. 1953, p. 44; Murray 1980a, p. 142; Murray 1980b, p. 31; Edwards 1996, pp. 53, 56;12 Beresford 1998, p. 268 (Attributed to Wouwermans); not in Schumacher 2006; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 309; RKD, no. 289770: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289770 (May 21, 2018).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Oak panel with vertical wood grain; the verso edges are bevelled and the back bears the remnants of a wax seal. The grey ground is very thin. The paint layers are worn and abraded, revealing the panel grain. This wear is most noticeable in the sky, and in the darks of the figures, the trees, the dog and the horses’ legs. Some areas of wear have been retouched, but the thinness is still evident. Previous recorded treatment: 1952–3, cleaned and restored, Dr Hell.

EXHIBITIONS
?London 1843, p. 10, no. 75 (‘Landscape with Horses and Figures’); London 1952–3, p. 85, no. 450 (as Philips Wouwermans).

RELATED WORKS
1) Copy: Ralph Cockburn, Landscape with Horses and Figures, c. 1816–20, aquatint, 129 x 182 mm (Cockburn 1830, no. 38) [1].13

The rubbed state of DPG193 – most of the surface of the darker layers is gone – makes a fair assessment of the painting in the original state difficult. Frederik Duparc wondered whether it was painted by Philips or Pieter Wouwerman, and commented, ‘Very weak, due to condition?’14 In 1858, Denning suggested Peter [i.e. Pieter] Wouwermans as the maker, but he changed his mind in his 1859 catalogue.

The picture shows a halt of sportsmen beside a river. On the far bank are a ferry15 and a village. In 1880 Richter and Sparkes published what they thought was a monogram on the picture, ‘PLW’; in his catalogue Hofstede de Groot doubted it, but it was repeated by others up to and including the 1926 Dulwich catalogue. No trace of a signature is now visible.

DPG193
attributed to Pieter Wouwerman (II)
Halt of Sportsmen, c. 1640-1682
panel (oak), oil paint 30,8 x 36,5 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG193

1
Ralph Cockburn after Pieter Wouwerman (II)
Landscape with Horses and Figures, 1816-1820
paper, aquatint 129 x 182 mm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery


Notes

1 Cat. 1817, p. 6, no. 80 (‘FIRST ROOM – East side; A Landscape and Figures; P. Wouvermans’) or Cat. 1817, p. 6, no. 84 (‘FIRST ROOM – East side; A Landscape; Peter Wouvermans’).

2 ‘PHILIP WOUWERMANS. Landscape with Figures’; or Haydon 1817, p. 377, no. 84: ‘WOUWERMANS. Landscape with a Man on horse-back’.

3 ‘Two free and spirited little pictures. Unlike the usual manner of Philip Wouvermans to whom I should not attribute them.’

4 Waagen mentions nos 63 and 64 (by Pieter Wouwermans), but because of the panel and measurements he means nos 125 (DPG125) and 126 (DPG126), as Denning already noted: ‘Dr. Waagen says the landscapes of this & 64 are in the style of Wynants – but he gives them to Philip Wouvermans.’

5 ‘This and the next are companion pictures. They are not like the other pictures of this master in the Gallery, having been evidently painted at that period when he imitated his master Wynants, whose style, as Dr. Waagen also thinks, [note: ‘unless he has given the wrong numbers and is alluding to 125 and 126’] they evidently bear. According to Mr Nieuwenhuys, those pictures of Wouwermans which resemble Wynants are not his earliest works. On wood 1 ft: 1½ inc: in W by 9 inc: in H.’

6 Nos 63 and 64: ‘Apparently two companion pictures. Formerly ascribed to Philips Wouwerman, but they are not in the style of that master, nor is the signature they bear his, but Pieter’s; they are harmonious in colour and broad in execution.’

7 Duparc & Buvelot 2009, pp. 84–5, 169, no. 9.

8 Pieter Wouwerman, Encampment beside an Ale House, canvas, 44.4 x 49.5 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 71: see Gerson & Goodison 1960, p. 143, no. 71, pl. 74; and The Stable, panel, 33 x 48.3 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 80, ibid., p. 144, no. 80, pl. 74.

9 GPID (June 5, 2018): Philippe Wouvermans – Une Halte de Chasseurs; l’un d’eux est encore à cheval, & les autres s’occupent avec leurs chiens: sur la droite se voit une riviere, & dans le lointain une colline enrichie d’arbres & d’habitations. Ce Tableau est d’une composition riche & intéressante, de la touche & de la couleur ordinaires à ce Maître. [] sur bois, hauteur dix pouces six lignes, largeur treize pouces six lig (A halt of huntsmen; one of them is still on horseback, and the others are dealing with their dogs: on the right you see a river, and in the distance a hill enriched with trees & houses. This picture has a rich and interesting composition, and has the touch & colour usual for this master. […] on panel, (French dimensions) h. 10 in. 6 lines, w. 13 in. 6 lines). NB: according to GPID the collection was formed by Paillet, who was also the auctioneer.

10 ‘DITTO [i.e. Wouwermans]. Landscape, with Horses and Figures. A mounted trumpeter and two officers; one of which is dismounted, and the other on horseback; a woman is at a well, where there is a dog drinking; a fine hazy distance forms the back-ground.’

11 1858 (Peter Wouvermans): ‘Evidently by the same hand as 53 [= DPG18); 1859: ASCRIBED To PHILIP WOUWERMANS Landscape with Figures. This is evidently by the same hand as 53 [=DPG18]. On canvas 1 ft: 1½ inc: in w by 9 inches in h.’ NB: the dimensions don’t agree with those in Britton 1813.

12 Edwards incorrectly associates DPG193 with lot 66 in Paillet’s 1777 sale – see GPID (18 June 2013) – whereas it was lot 13.

13 RKD, no. 289771: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289771 (May 21, 2018).

14 Letter from Frederik J. Duparc to Richard Beresford, 18 Aug. 1997 (DPG193 file).

15 As pointed out by Remmelt Daalder in an email to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 28 March 2018 (DPG193 file), for which many thanks.

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