Dulwich Picture Gallery II


Philips Wouwerman DPG78, DPG91, DPG18

DPG78 – Halt of a Hunting Party

in or after 1660; canvas, 55.6 x 82.9 cm
Monogrammed right: PHILS . W (PHILS in monogram)

Jean-Philippe, bâtard d’Orléans (1702–48), called the Chevalier d’Orléans, Paris, by 1739 (see Related works, no. 2) [1]; not in Isaak Hoogenbergh sale, Amsterdam, 10 April 1743 (Lugt 576), lot 10;1 ?Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson (1722–82), Château of Asnières, his inventory (Bibliothèque Universitaire, Poitiers), c. 1750, no. 78;2 ?Desenfans sale, Skinner & Dyke, London, 28 Feb. 1795 (Lugt 5281), lot 17;3 ?Jan Danser Nyman (or Nijman) sale, Amsterdam (Ph. van der Schley…, C. S. Roos), 16 Aug. ff. 1797 (Lugt 5640), p. 63, lot 303; bt Van Zanten (or Van Santen, most likely Van Santvoort?) for ƒ1800 (£162);4 ?Insurance 1804, no. 82 (‘A Landscape with Horses Wouwermans £500’); not in George Craufurd coll., Rotterdam and London, 1806 (see main text); not in Crawford sale, Christie’s, 26 April 1806 (Lugt 7075), lot 27; bt North for £362 5s (see main text);5 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 25, no. 253 (‘Small Drawing Room / no. 6, Landscape, figures, Horses, water - C[anvas] - Do [i.e. Wouvermans]’; 2'7" x 3'6").

Cat. 1817, p. 11, no. 178 (‘CENTRE ROOM – South Side; A Landscape with Figures hawking; Wouvermans’); Haydon 1817, p. 388, no. 178;6 Cat. 1820, p. 11, no. 178; Patmore 1824b, pp. 42–3, no. 119;7 Smith 1829–42, i (1829), p. 262, no. 215;8 Cat. 1830, p. 9, no. 173; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 470. no. 173 (‘The whole picture is full of animation and elegance’); Waagen 1854, ii, p. 343, no. 6;9 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 173;10 Sparkes 1876, p. 213, no. 173; Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 191, no. 173;11 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 20, no. 78; Masterpieces Wouwerman 1907, p. 37 (fig.); HdG, ii, 1908, p. 456, no. 659 (and probably identical to no. 681; Engl. edn 1909, p. 461); Thompson 1910–12, ii (1911), fig. 8; Cook 1914, p. 44, no. 78; Cook 1926, p. 42, no. 78; Hennus 1936, p. 165 (fig.); Cat. 1953, p. 44; Wilenski 1955, pp. 129, 130, pl. 71 (‘an echo of Jan Both’); Binney 1970, p. 234 (fig.); Wright 1976, p. 224; Rosenberg, Slive & Ter Kuile 1977, p. 255 (fig. 202); Murray 1980a, p. 140; Murray 1980b, p. 30; Sullivan 1984, pp. 45, 90 (note 84); Wright 1989, p. 268; Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1560, under no. 2020; Franits 1992, p. 107, fig. 1; Slive 1995, pp. 210–11, fig. 288; Goedde 1997, pp. 134–5 (fig. 83); Beresford 1998, p. 266; Anderman 2004, pp. 31–2 (fig. 2); Schumacher 2006, i, p. 243, A183 (around or shortly before 1660; with the Duc d’Orléans as provenance), ii, pl. 172; Duparc & Buvelot 2009, pp. 35, 188 (note 96); Dejardin 2009b, pp. 8–9; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 303–4, 307; RKD, no. 52749: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/52749 (March 17, 2018).

London/Washington/Los Angeles 1985–6, pp. 124–5, no. 37 (C. Brown); Tokyo/Shizuoka/Osaka/Yokohama 1986–7, pp. 148–9, no. 40 (in Japanese; C. Brown); Warsaw 1992, pp. 130–31, no. 29 (C. Brown); Bath 1999, n.p., no. 14 (A. Sumner); Houston/Louisville 1999–2000, pp. 198–9, no. 70 (D. Shawe-Taylor); Amsterdam 2000, pp. 266, 336, no. 178; London 2002, p. 187, no. 50 (L. B. Harwood); Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma 2008–10, pp. 98–9, no. 35 (I. A. C. Dejardin).

Plain-weave linen canvas. Dark grey ground. Glue-paste lined. There is evidence of old woodworm in the stretcher, and there is a crack in the top of one of the vertical members. The paint layers are basically sound. Old stretcher bar marks and a fine raised craquelure all over. There are areas of retouched) thinness above the tree and around the dog; the bottom edge has been retouched and has three notable large restored areas of damage. Previous recorded treatment: 1952–3, Dr Hell; 1984, stretcher keys tied in, surface cleaned, blanching treated, retouched, revarnished, National Maritime Museum, S. Sanderson.

1) Copy (without the defecating dog). As Pieter Wouwerman, Departure for the Chase. Present whereabouts unknown (Walter Senger, Bamberg, 1980).12
2a) (in reverse) Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman, Petite Chasse à l’Oyseau, 1739, etching, 359 x 475 mm; in the collection of le Chevalier d’Orléans; Moyreau 1737–62, no. 38. BM, London, 1847,0305.79 [1].13
2b) Copy: after 2a, Halte pendant la chasse, no dimensions or support known, Musée de Cambrai, P 384.14
3) Copy: Ralph Cockburn, A Hunting Party, c. 1816–20, aquatint, 170 x 239 mm (Cockburn 1830, no. 4). DPG [2].15
4) Philips Wouwerman, ‘Going out Hawking, a very capital and elegant picture, a rich scene, from the Orleans Collection’, no dimensions known. Lowenthal collection, New York (John Davenport sale, Christie’s, 21 February 1801 (Lugt 6202), lot 88; bt Bourgeois for £168).16

Lent to the Royal Academy to be copied in 1834.

Duparc has suggested a date for DPG78 in the early 1660s.17 Schumacher differs slightly, saying ‘around or shortly before 1660’. In comparison with the earlier works, DPG78 is undoubtedly more courtly in terms of its subject matter (for example the elegant pose of the nobleman in yellow), and Wouwerman’s use of colour reflects this, consisting of warm pinks, duck-egg blues and soft greens. Christopher Brown notes that hunting and falconry were aristocratic recreations in 17th-century Holland and strict rules applied. As Wayne Franits has demonstrated, scenes of hunting parties at rest such as DPG78 were thought to have amorous connotations, providing young men with the opportunity to woo ladies – as can be seen here.18 At the same time, there is still a hint of Wouwerman’s Bambocciante origins in the figure of the beggar, whose supplicating hat echoes that of the nobleman in yellow, and in the defecating dog.

About the provenance of this picture much is unclear. It was definitely in the collection of the Chevalier d’Orléans in 1739, when Jean Moyreau made an etching after it (Related works, no. 2a) [1], and not in the collection of the Duc d’Orléans as is often said.19 It is not completely certain that it was in the collection of the Marquis d’Argenson: in the inventory of c. 1750 there it was called Dépar pour la chasse à l’oiseau (Departure for hunting with birds), while it is clearly a hunting party at rest in the middle of nature; but the mention in the inventory of around 1750 of the provenance from the collection of the Chevalier d’Orléans makes it likely that it is the same picture. It is unclear, however, how it came into the possession of the Marquis, or how it left his collection. Movement between England and the Continent in the 1790s is highly unlikely. Smith, Denning and Murray asserted that DPG78 was bought by Desenfans at the J. Danser Nijman (or Nyman) sale in Amsterdam in 1797. Fredericksen rejected that, stating that in two annotated copies of the 1797 sale catalogue the buyer was given as ‘Van Zanten’ (or ‘Van Santen’, probably the dealer Van Santvoort).20 That would however not exclude Desenfans as the buyer, as ‘Van Zanten’ could have been a middleman. According to Fredericksen, DPG78 appeared in London in the 1806 sale of the collection of George Crauford (Crawford), a Scottish merchant whose family had long been resident in Rotterdam and whose brother James was British Consul General there.21 However Fredericksen does not seem to know that DPG78 is very likely to be the work mentioned in the Desenfans Insurance list of 1804, and consequently already in the Desenfans/Bourgeois collection at that time. Most if not all the pictures in that Insurance list are still at Dulwich. In any case, Bourgeois bought another Wouwerman hunting picture at Christie’s in 1801, now in an American private collection (Related works, no. 4).

Philips Wouwerman
Halt of a Hunting Party, after 1660
canvas, oil paint 55,6 x 82,9 cm
lower right : PHiLS W
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG78

Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman
Halt of a hunting party, dated 1739
paper, etching 359 x 475 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1847,0305.79

Ralph Cockburn after Philips Wouwerman
Hunting party, 1816-1820
paper, aquatint 170 x 239 mm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery

DPG91 – The Return from Hawking

c. 1660–65; oak panel, 47.3 x 64.8 cm
Monogrammed bottom left: PHILSW (PHILS in monogram)

?Probably not Louis-Philippe-Joseph, Duc d’Orléans, Palais Royal, Paris, 1739;22 ?Louis-Philippe-Joseph, Duc d’Orléans, Palais Royal, Paris, 1779; ?1791/2 sold to Thomas Moore Slade (for Lord Kinnaird, Mr Morland and Mr Hammersley) as part of the Dutch and Flemish paintings of the Orléans collection; ?Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, London, 28 Feb. 1795 (Lugt 5281), lot 17;23 Insurance 1804, no. 84 (‘Return from the Chase Ditto [= Wouwerman] £400’; Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 25, no. 254 (‘Small Drawing Room / no. 7, Do [i.e. Landscape, figures] Do - [i.e. Horses, water] C[anvas] - Do [i.e. Wouvermans]’; 2'4' x 2'11").

Cat. 1817, p. 8, no. 128 (‘SECOND ROOM – West Side; Return from Hunting; Wouvermans’); Haydon 1817, p. 381, no. 128 (‘Return from Hawking’);24 Cat. 1820, p. 8, no. 128 (‘Return from Hunting’); Cat. 1830, p. 8, no. 136; Smith 1829–42, i (1829), pp. 218–19, no. 55, or p. 294, no. 334?;25 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 464, no. 136;26 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 136 (= Smith 55);27 Sparkes 1876, pp. 211–12, no. 136 (‘The Return from Hawking’, = Smith 334);28 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 191, no. 136;29 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 23, no. 91;30 HdG, ii, 1908, p. 471, no. 705 (Engl. edn 1909, p. 477); Stryienski 1913, p. 183 (not in the collection of the dukes of Orléans); Cook 1914, p. 54, no. 91; Cook 1926, pp. 51–2, no. 91; Cat. 1953, p. 44; Wilenski 1955, p. 129; Wright 1976, p. 224; Murray 1980a, p. 141 (‘Probably a late work’); Murray 1980b, pp. 30–31; White 1982, p. 155, under no. 255; Wright 1989, p. 268; Beresford 1998, p. 267; Schumacher 2006, i, p. 257, no. A218 (first half of the 1660s), ii, pl. 202; i, p. 259, under no. A222; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 305, 307; RKD, no. 225962: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/225962 (March 17, 2018).

Aberystwyth 1947, p. 9, no. 12 (M. Ellis); London 1952–3, p. 57, no. 283; Williamsburg/Fresno/Pittsburgh/Oklahoma 2008–10, pp. 102–3, no. 37 (I. A. C. Dejardin).

Oak panel with horizontal grain; the verso edges are bevelled. Panel has a very slight warp but is generally in good condition, with a small repaired split at the lower right corner. There are neat retouchings along the wood grain, where it evidently showed through the paint layers. The green passages have discoloured widely and become brown and more transparent. This browning may indicate the use of a copper-based green pigment in these parts. The leaves to the left of the woman have become bluish, suggesting that the green here was originally made up with a mixture of an organic, fugitive yellow (now faded) and a more stable blue pigment. The dark areas seem to have darkened further and appear very thin and abraded: they have been retouched or toned-in to compensate. Previous recorded treatment: 1952–3, ?cleaned and restored, Dr Hell; 1970–72, ?retouched, Dr Hell

1a) Philips Wouwerman, Return from the Hunt, panel, 45 x 60 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Henry Artaria sale, London, 23 April 1850, lot 87; John Penrice sale, London, 6 July 1844; bt Farrer; Duc d’Orléans; Schumacher A222).31
1b) Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman (1a; Schumacher A222), La Chasse aux Éperviers, 1738, inscriptions (in the collection of the Duc d’Orléans), etching, 356 x 468 mm; Moyreau 1737–62, no. 30 (Smith 334). BM, London, 1847,0305.71.32
2a) Philips Wouwerman, The Return from the Hunt, monogrammed PHiLS, panel, 48.5 x 64.2 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Christie’s, 5 July 2011, lot 36; […] Duc d’Orléans; Schumacher A225).33
2b) Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman (2a; Schumacher A225), Retour de Chasse et Curée, c. 1733, inscriptions (in the collection of the Duc d’Orléans), etching, 348 x 458 mm; Moyreau 1737–62, no. 1. BM, London, 1847,0305.43.34
3) Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman, La Conduite des Dames pour la Chasse, 1738, inscriptions (in the collection of the Duc d’Orléans), etching, 351 x 469 mm; Moyreau 1737–62, no. 32. BM, London, 1847,0305.73.35
4) Jean Moyreau after Philips Wouwerman, Le Présent du Chasseur, 1738, inscriptions (in the collection of the Duc d’Orléans), etching, 355 x 473 cm; Moyreau 1737–62, no. 31. BM, London, 1847,0305.72.36
5) Philips Wouwerman, Departure for Falconry, panel, 47 x 63 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Lempertz, Cologne, 12 May 2012, lot 1263).37
6) Philips Wouwerman, The Departure for the Chase, black chalk, pencil, wash in grey and black and pen in black ink, 250 x 346 mm. Teylers Museum, Haarlem, P+031.38

Duparc has dated the picture to the first half of the 1660s,39 as has Schumacher. It demonstrates the great facility with which Wouwerman could produce such a painting by the 1660s: long, linear compositions with the sky occupying nearly three-quarters of the area are typical of his late works.

As with DPG78, the earlier provenance is unclear. Denning suggests Willem Lormier (1682–1758), based on the information in Smith (1829, no. 55), although Smith himself says that ‘the brevity of the descriptions [in the Lormier sale catalogue of 1763] prevents them being correctly identified’.40 According to Murray it was included in the 1795 Desenfans sale.41 The Orléans collection is mentioned by Schumacher, where at least four hunting scenes by Wouwerman were etched by Jean Moyreau (Related works, nos 1b, 2b, 3, 4), of which three have at some time been wrongly associated with DPG91. Indeed, a large number of pictures with the title Return from the Chase were produced by Wouwerman and appeared on the London art market in the late 1790s and early 1800s. In the 1802 Desenfans sale there is a description of a very similar picture with a boat that has led to some confusion (‘There are also seen people bathing and a boat with oars, in which are two men’).42 This could be the picture that was recently at auction (Related works, no. 5).

Wouwerman probably used drawings to prepare his paintings, such as one in the Teylers Museum with a group of people, in that case preparing to depart (Related works, no. 6).

Philips Wouwerman
Return from Hawking, c. 1660-1665
panel (oak), oil paint 47,3 x 64,8 cm
lower left : PHILS w (PHILS in monogram)
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG91

After Philips Wouwerman
DPG18 – Hay Harvest

18th or early 19th century; canvas on panel, 46 x 60.4 cm

Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 28, no. 289 (‘Unhung / no. 20, Hay field, waggons, horses & figures P[anel] Wouvermans’; 2'5" x 2'9").

Cat. 1817, p. 5, no. 42 (‘FIRST ROOM – West Side; A Landscape, with Haymakers; Wouvermans’); Haydon 1817, p. 373, no. 42;43 Cat. 1820, p. 5, no. 42 (Philip Wouwerman); Cat. 1830, p. 5, no. 53; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 451, no. 53; Hazlitt 1843, p. 27, no. 53;44 Denning 1858 and 1859, no. 53 (perhaps Pieter Wouwerman);45 Sparkes 1876, p. 209, no. 53 (Philip Wouwerman); Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 192, no. 53 (After Wouwerman);46 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 5, no. 18; HdG, ii, 1908, p. 559, under no. 940 (as a copy of the Royal Collection picture; Engl. edn, 1909, p. 565);47 Cook 1914, p. 13, no. 18;48 Cook 1926, p. 13, no. 18; Cat. 1953, p. 44 (P. Wouwerman); Wright 1976, pp. 223–4; Murray 1980a, p. 142 (an old copy of a Wouwerman in the Royal Collection); Murray 1980b, p. 31; White 1982, p. 154, under no. 249; Beresford 1998, p. 269 (after Wouwerman); Schumacher 2006, i, pp. 345 (under no. A441), 466, no. C150 (copy of A441); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 306–7; RKD, no. 289767: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289767 (May 28, 2018).

London 1952–3, p. 58, no. 291.

Plain-weave canvas. The ground is a warm buff, with grey preparation underneath the sky. The canvas has been lined onto a single-member oak panel (not original). The panel is in good condition, although it has a strong convex warp; it is bevelled on the verso edges. Light cupping of the surface seems to have been flattened by the lining and now appears as an even craquelure pattern. There are areas of widespread abrasion in the paint layer, such as in the sky and figures. Remnants of varnish obscure some of the modelling and tonal transitions, and there is a scratch in the path below the central dog. There is considerable repaint and strengthening of forms in the foreground and figures. Previous recorded treatment: 1952–3, Dr Hell; 1982, sight box made for display, National Maritime Museum.

1) (original) Philips Wouwerman, The Hayfield, monogrammed PHILS. W (PHILS in monogram), first half of the 1650s or c. 1660–68, canvas, 67.3 x 78.8 cm. Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 405334 [3].49

DPG18 is an 18th- or very early 19th-century copy with minor variations after Wouwerman’s original in the Royal Collection, as was already observed by Richter & Sparkes in 1880 – a picture whose silvery tonalities suggest it is probably a late work, as Shawe-Taylor noted.50 According to Schumacher, however, the original picture was painted in the first half of the 1650s. It is unclear exactly when DPG18 was painted, but it is surely significant that as the original entered England in 1810–11 DPG18 is unlikely to be of English manufacture.

after Philips Wouwerman
Hay Harvest, c. 1650-1811
canvas on panel, oil paint 46 x 60,4 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG18

Philips Wouwerman
Landscape with hay wagons, two hunters in the foreground, c. 1660-1668
canvas, oil paint 67,3 x 78,8 cm
lower right : PHiLS.W
Great Britain, The Royal Collection, inv./cat.nr. RCIN 405334


1 Hoet 1752, ii, p. 81, no. 10; Een Valkejacht kapitaal en konstig door Philip Wouwerman, br. 2 v. 8 d., h. 2 v en een half d, ƒ555 [50l.] (A capital and artful falconry scene by Philip Wouwerman, [Dutch dimensions] 2 ft 8 w. x 2 ft ½ h.) Christopher Brown has noted that Hofstede de Groot and Murray, both of whom were following Smith, incorrectly identify DPG78 as being in the collection of M. Hogenburgh of Amsterdam in 1743. Not only do the measurements of that picture not agree with the Dulwich painting, but the description could apply to a number of works by the artist, and it seems unlikely that the Dulwich painting had left the Orléans collection as early as 1743, as Brown concludes, in Waterfield & Brown 1994, p. 124, no. 37. However the painting was in the collection of the Chevalier and not that of the Duc d’Orléans (as Brown says in his main text).

2 Dépar [sic] pour la chasse à l’oiseau” du Cabinet du M. le Chevalier d’Orlèans [sic]. As Anne Leclair has pointed out (letter to Paul Matthews, 31 March 2004, DPG78 file), DPG78 passed from the collection of the Chevalier d’Orléans to that of the Marquis d’Argenson, where it was inventoried c. 1750. She suggested that the picture could have been at auction after the death of the Chevalier, when his collections were sold for the charity work of the Temple (letter from Anne Leclair to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 16 July 2013, DPG78 file). Mme Leclair is publishing a paper on the Marquis’ collection under the title ‘Le cabinet de peintures du Marquis de Voyer d’Argenson. Trésors des écoles du Nord’. NB: Moyreau made another print after a picture in the collection of the Chevalier d’Orléans, called Les Maquignons à la Foire (1739), Moyreau 1737–62, no. 37 (Teylers Museum, KG 13060; Atwater 1989, iv, pp. 1559–60, no. 2019); that subject, a horse market, has nothing to do with hunting with birds. Moyreau also made three prints after pictures in the collection of the Marquis d’Argenson: La Fontaine du Triton (1750), Moyreau 1737–62, no. 64 (Atwater 1989, iv, pp. 1575–6, no. 2046); La Fontaine de Vénus (1750), Moyreau 1737–62, no. 65 (Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1576, no. 2047); and Cavaliers du Manège (1752), Moyreau 1737–62, no. 70 (Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1579, no. 2052).

3 Schumacher (2006, p. 243, no. A183) is clearly wrong in stating that this sale was in Paris (see also note 23, and, under DPG182 / DPG92, note 19). In the sale in London on that date (GPID, on 15 June 2013) the description – ‘A Return from the Chace’ – is general and no dimensions are given, so one cannot be certain that it is DPG78; the same lot is mentioned in connection with DPG91 (see note 23).

4 Wouwerman (Philip); hoog 21 breed 31 duim (assuming these are Amsterdam duim (= 2.57 cm), 53.8 x 79.7 cm). Doek; no. 303; Dit uitmuntend Konststuk, verbeeld een Heuvelagtig Landscap, en in hetzelve een Jachtparty van Dames en Heeren; op de Voorgrond by een opgaande Wegh, staat een Jongeling een wit Gezadeld Paard, by den Toom vast houdende, waar nevens een andere met twee Paarden; op de Grond zit een Dame, welke door een Heer eenige Vrugten gracelyk werd aangebooden: ter zyde een Bediende, die een Waterfles schynt te vullen by een stroomend Watervalletje; ter andere zyde vertoond zig een Dame, en een Heer te Paard met een Valk op de hand, waar by een Bedelaar een Almoes vragende, en verder een aangenaam verschiet; alles is helder, fraai en van een delicate penceelbehandeling, en een der Konstige van deze beroemde Meester. (This excellent work of art depicts a hilly landscape, and in it a hunting party of ladies and gentlemen; in the foreground near an upward path is a youth, holding the bridle of a white saddled horse; near him another [youth] with two horses; seated on the ground is a lady, to whom a gentleman gracefully offers some fruit; at the side is a servant, who seems to be filling a water bottle in a rushing stream; on the other side are a lady and a gentleman on horseback with a falcon on his hand, near whom a beggar is asking for alms; beyond is a pleasing distance; everything is clear, beautiful and painted with a delicate paintbrush, and one of the most skillful by this famous master.) According to Denning 1858, no. 173: ‘Purchased in Holland from the Collection of Danser Nyman in 1797 for £162. Signed.’ See also notes 8, 10 and 11.

5 Again no dimensions are given, so it is not certain that this is DPG78: ‘Halt of a Party Hawking, Figures descending to the right, and others refreshing themselves by the Side of a Streamlet; with a View of a beautiful distant Country – a chef d’Œuvre. – The Figures designed with Elegance, the Animals very spirited, and the Whole painted with rich Effect in his fine enamelled Style.’

6 ‘Wouwermans. Landscape, with Figures hawking. One of those beautiful arrangements of cavaliers, ladies, horses, and attendants, for which Wouwermans is so celebrated; some of the party are dismounted; a boy holds their horses while they watch a hawk at a distance, who is just “pouncing on his prey.”’

7 ‘The picture […] offers a most delightful and perfect example of this artist’s style. As a composition, it is faultless; the tone of colouring is sweet and tender in a high degree, and the expressions are throughout natural and unaffected.’ Under no. 120 (DPG92): ‘The two foregoing [DPG78 and DPG92] are perhaps the best pictures in the Collection by this most pleasing artist.’

8 ‘A truly beautiful example of the master. Collection of M. Hogenburgh, Amst. 1743 555 flo. 50l. Danser Nyman 1797 1800 flo. 162l. Now in the Dulwich Gallery, and worth 600 gs.’ For Hogenbergh see notes 1, 10 and 11, and for Danser Nyman notes 4, 10 and 11.

9 ‘No. 6 “Petite Chasse à l’Oiseau.” This is the name given to this hilly landscape, which represents a small hawking party halting to take refreshments. Of great beauty and elegance of execution. […] (No. 173).’

10 ‘It was formerly in the Collection of M: Hogenburgh of Amsterdam, at whose sale in 1743 it fetched 555 florins or about £50, but at the sale of Danser Nyman’s pictures it advanced to 1800 florins or £162.’ See notes 1, 4, 8 and 11.

11 ‘Clear and silvery in tone; in every respect an excellent work of the master. […] Collections. – Chevalier d’Orléans, 1779 [sic]. Mr. Hogenburgh, Amsterdam, 1743 […] Danser Wyman [sic], 1797…’ See the preceding note.

12 Schumacher 2006, p. 243, under no. A183.

13 RKD, no. 289765: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289765 (May 19, 2018). See also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1847-0305-79 (May 19, 2020); Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1560, no. 2020.

14 Bürger says that this picture is a mirror image copy after DPG78, consequently it must have been made after the Moyreau print: Bürger 2007, p. 350, note 48.

15 RKD, no. 289764: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/289764 (May 19, 2018).

16 According to GPID (20 May 2018) that picture was sold in 1807 by someone called Elwin (Lugt 7279). It is not explained how the picture went from Bourgeois to Elwin. It is not often that we see Bourgeois selling pictures that he recently acquired. Perhaps he did so in 1801 (acting as a dealer, like Desenfans) as he/they had not yet decided to form a collection of pictures for the nation?

17 Letter from Frederik J. Duparc to Richard Beresford, 18 Aug. 1997 (DPG92 file).

18 Franits 1992.

19 As for instance by Schumacher (2006, p. 243).

20 Letter from Burton Fredericksen to DPG, 9 Jan. 1990 (not found in DPG78 file).

21 According to Fredricksen the picture was purchased, along with DPG82 (by Karel Dujardin), by ‘North’. Interestingly, Bourgeois was friends with the Crawford family (correspondence in the British Library, London) and a frequent visitor to their home, so he must have known both pictures, and North could have acted as his agent. However, it is very likely that the picture was in the 1804 Insurance list, so already in the possession of Desenfans (and Bourgeois).

22 According to Stryienski (1913, p. 183), who mentions four Wouwerman pictures in the Duke’s collection, this painting is not his no. 411 (that is Schumacher A222, see note 31 below). Stryienski rejects HdG’s statement that he found twelve pictures by Wouwerman in the collection of the dukes of Orléans (p. 183), since he found only four. According to Schumacher (2006, i, p. 243, no. A183), DPG91 was in the collection of Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (Palais Royal, 1739), then passed to Louis-Philippe-Joseph, Duc d’Orléans (Palais Royal, 1779), and was brought to England as part of the Orléans collection in 1791/2 and exhibited in London in 1793 and 1795. Stryienski already rejected this provenance for DPG91.

23 GPID (17 June 2013): ‘A Return from the Chace’. Schumacher wrongly mentions Paris as the location of this sale: also see note 3 and, under DPG182 / DPG92, note 19. DPG78 is mentioned as lot no. 17 in this sale: see note 3.

24 ‘DITTO [= Wouwermans]. Return from Hawking. A collation is prepared in the arch of an ancient ruin; a lady and child is receiving the returning gentry, one of whom is presenting her a hare. The whole of the party, ladies, gentlemen, dogs and horses, are admirably grouped, and are full of the pomp and circumstance of this ancient and honourable sport.’

25 As part of the collection of Willem Lormier, which was at auction in 1763; Smith adds: ‘the brevity of the descriptions prevents them being correctly identified’. At the end of the first six Wouwerman pictures he says: ‘The above pictures came from the collection of the Stadtholder’: p. 219, no. 55: ‘A Hunting Party returned from the chase. 18½ in. by 25 in. – P[anel] 1200 flo. 108l.’; p. 294, no. 334: ‘La Chasse aux Eperviers. The arrival of a hunting party […] Engraved by Moyreau, No. 30, under the above title. Collection of the Duc d’Orléans, 1738, valued, in 1798, at 200l. Engraved also in the Orleans Gallery. 18 in. by 24 in. P[anel].’ Cat. 1953 gives DPG91's dimensions as 18⅞ x 25½ in.

26 ‘Le Retour de la Chasse et Curée. Engraved by Dequevaviller.’ Mrs Jameson made a mistake here, as DPG91 was not reproduced in print. This was repeated until Richter & Sparkes 1892.

27 1858: ‘The Return from Hunting. Philip Wouwermans. On wood 2 ft: 1 in: in W by 1 ft 6½ inches in H. Engraved by Dequevaviller. Cf: Buchanan’s Memoirs of Painting Vol: I, p: 204, or p: 266. p. 293. Which is it? Signed PLW. This picture was formerly in the Collection of W Lormier at the Hague, and is mentioned by Descamps Vol: ii. p: 294 as “un Retour de Chasse.” At the Sale of that Collection in 1763 it was sold for 1200 florins = £108. It is 55 in Smith’s Catal: Raisonné.’ 1859: ‘Return from Hunting / This is not the picture called (from the title given to the engraving by Moyreau) “Le Retour de la Chasse et Curée,” as stated by Mrs Jameson [see Related works, no. 2b, which was a reproduction after a different picture]. That is in the Collection of C. Bullen Esq. of Liverpool. This picture was formerly in the Collection of M: W Lormier at the Hague, and is noticed as being there by Descamps Vol: ii. P. 294 under the title of “Un Retour de Chasse”. At the Sale of his pictures in 1763, it was sold for 1,200 florins, about £108. It is no. 55 in Smith’s Catalogue Raisonné. It is signed by Philip Wouwermans. On wood. 2 ft: 1 inc: in W by 1 ft: 6½ inc: in H.’ As Descamps only mentions a ‘Retour de la Chasse’ that was in the Lormier sale (in 1763), it is highly doubtful that this was DPG91. That catalogue (Lugt 1307, lot 326) gives the dimensions as mentioned above (2 ft 1 in. x 1 ft. 6½ in.) and the description: Een Gezelschap van de Jagt komende, met veel Wild (A company returning from hunting, with a lot of game). It was sold to ‘de heer Neuville’ for fl. 1,200. For Willem Lormier, a gentleman-dealer, see Korthals Altes 2000–2001.

28 ‘Engraved by Dequevaviller and Moreau, No. 30, and in the Orleans Gallery […] This is probably No. 334 in Smith’s Catalogue, under the title of “La Chasse au Eperviers.” [see Related works, no. 1b]. It was in the Orleans Collection in 1738, and valued, in 1793, at 200l.’

29 ‘A later work; almost too crowded a composition. Formerly in the Orleans Gallery (No. 30). Engraved by Dequevauviller and Moreau.’

30 As in the preceding note.

31 Schumacher 2006, i, p. 259, no. A222; Stryienski 1913, no. 411.

32 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1847-0305-71 (May 19, 2020); Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1556, no. 2012.

33 Schumacher 2006, i, pp. 260–61, no. A225, ii, pl. 30, fig. 207; Stryienski 1913, no. 412.

34 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1847-0305-43 (May 19, 2020); Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1540, no. 1984.

35 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1847-0305-73 (May 19, 2020); Atwater 1989, iv, p. 1557, no. 2014.

36 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1847-0305-72 (May 19, 2020); Atwater 1989, iv, pp. 1556–57, no. 2013.

37 Lempertz Bulletin, [June] 2012, p. 15.

38 Plomp 1997, p. 467, no. 560.

39 Letter from Frederik J. Duparc to Richard Beresford, 18 Aug. 1997 (DPG92 file).

40 Based on Smith (see note 25).

41 Murray 1980a, p. 141. Murray does not connect this with the work offered in London on 16 June 1794, lot 446 (‘P. Wouvermans – Return from the Chace). NB: GPID (8 May 2015) does not give the dimensions anymore as ‘3 ft. 1 by 2 ft. 8, on canvas’. But why should that be the same picture? This last lot is also mentioned in connection with DPG78 (see note 3).

42 Desenfans 1802, ii, p. 88: ‘By the same [Wouwerman]; No. 117 Halt of Horsemen…’

43 ‘WOUWERMANS. Haymakers with a Cart, &c. The Gallery is rich in works of this delightful painter; and this, among the rest, is deserving notice, for its natural and correct display of nature.’

44 ‘There are several capital pictures of horses, &c. by Wouvermans, in the same room, particularly the one with a hay-cart loading on the top of a rising ground. The composition is as striking and pleasing as the execution is delicate. There is immense knowledge and character in Wouvermans’ horses – an ear, an eye turned round, a cropped tail, give you their history and thoughts – but from the want of a little arrangement, his figures look too often like spots on a dark ground. When they are properly relieved and disentangled from the rest of the composition, there is an appearance of great life and bustle in his pictures. His horses, however, have too much of the manège in them – he seldom gets beyond the camp or the riding-school.’

45 ‘Most probably by Peter Wouvermans the younger brother of Philips, though formerly ascribed to the latter. Cf. 65’. 1859: ‘This and 65 are probably by the same hand – perhaps that of Peter Wouwermans.’

46 ‘An old copy. A very similar picture by Ph. Wouwerman is No. 57 in the Picture Gallery of Buckingham Palace.’ For the Royal Collection picture see note 49 below.

47 See note 49 below.

48 ‘An Old copy. A very similar picture by Philip [sic] Wouwerman is in the Picture Gallery of Buckingham Palace.’ See note 49 below.

49 RKD, no. 214484: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/214484 (May 20, 2018); Schumacher 2006, i, p. 345, no. A441, ii, fig. 412; Shawe-Taylor 2010, pp. 16, 28, 54–7; see also Smith 1829–42, i (1829), p. 271, no. 256 (‘Now in His Majesty’s collection, and worth 1000l.’) and ix, 1842, p. 171, no. 94. See also https://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/search#/11/collection/405334/the-hayfield (May 20, 2018).

50 See the preceding note.

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