Dulwich Picture Gallery II

RKD STUDIES

Herman van SWANEVELT

Woerden, c. 1603–Paris, 1655
Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher


Herman van Swanevelt [1] lived most of his life in Rome and Paris. He may first have trained in the studio of the Utrecht history painter and landscapist Abraham Bloemaert (1566–1651), but the painter and graphic artist Willem Buytewech I (1591/2–1624), who worked from 1617 in Rotterdam, has also been mentioned as his master. In 1623 Swanevelt was in Paris, where relatives were living, and his first known works are two signed views of the city dated 1623 (Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brunswick).1

From 1629 to 1641 he was in Rome, where an old, unverified, tradition holds that he lived in the same house as Claude Lorrain (1604/5–82). Whether or not this is true, Swanevelt’s early stylistic development ran parallel with that of Claude, and seems even have anticipated it (see under DPG174).

In Rome Swanevelt became a member of the Schildersbent, the ‘painters’ clique’, also known as the Bentvueghels (Birds of a Feather), where he acquired the nickname ‘Heremiet’ (hermit). He was very successful, undertaking commissions for the Pamphilj and the Colonna, and for the Vatican (Cardinal Antonio Barberini (1607–71) bought some thirty paintings). For Philip IV, King of Spain (1605–65), he worked on the decoration of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid; other foreign artists there included the Frenchmen Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) from Rome, and the Dutch brothers Andries Both (1611/12–42) and Jan Both (1615/22–52). Swanevelt acted as an important link between the first and second generations of Dutch Italianates in Rome, and his monumental compositions and hazy, atmospheric, lighting were highly influential on younger painters including Jan Both, Nicolaes Berchem (1621/2–83) and Jan Baptist Weenix (1621–59).

Swanevelt is documented in Rome until 1641, when he returned via Florence and Venice to Paris. There he remained, with the exception of short visits to Woerden, until his death. He acquired French nationality, and in 1651 he was put forward as a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which he became in 1653. He continued to be held in high regard for his classical landscapes, receiving commissions from Armand-Jean Du Plessis, better known as Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642), and being appointed painter in ordinary to Louis XIV of France (1638–1715). He was a prolific draughtsman and peintre-graveur, making some 117 prints. Somehow his name disappeared from art-historical memory, but since the work of Kitson (1958) and Blankert (1965) it has been clear that Swanevelt was not a pupil of Claude, as was often said, but rather that Claude was inspired by Swanevelt. They worked together at the Buen Retiro, and their paintings of the 1630s are closely related, so much so that in the DPG collection it seems that a Swanevelt became a Claude (DPG309), and a Claude became (perhaps) a Swanevelt (DPG174).

LITERATURE
Kitson 1958a and b; Waddingham 1960; Blankert 1978/1965, pp. 98–9; Salerno, ii, 1977–8, pp. 410–23; Chong 1987f; Bos 1996b; Schatborn 2001, pp. 77–83, 205–6; Szanto 2003; Capitelli 2005; Blankert & De Graaf 2007; Steland 2010; Cappelletti 2011, p. 41; Levert 2017, p. 314, no. 7255; Veldman 2020; Ecartico, no. 7255: http://www.vondel.humanities.uva.nl/ecartico/persons/7255 (May 12, 2020); RKDartists&, no. 76191: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/76191 (May 12, 2020).

1
Ottavio Mario Leoni
Portrait of a man, possibly the painter Herman van Swanevelt (c. 1603-1655), c. 1615-1630
paper, etching 144 x 110 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./cat.nr. RP-P-1907-244


DPG11 – The Arch of Constantine, Rome

1645; canvas, 89.8 x 115.6 cm
Signed and dated on masonry, lower left: H. SWANEVELT . F . / PARIS . 1645


PROVENANCE
?;2 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 31, no. 325 (‘Unhung / no. 56, Arch of Constantine with several figures – C[anvas]. Swanefelt’ 3'10" x 4'8").

REFERENCES
Cat. 1817, p. 12, no. 204 (‘CENTRE ROOM – East Side; A View of the Arch of Constantine; Swanefeld’); Haydon 1817, p. 391, no. 204;3 Cat. 1820, p. 12, no. 204; Cat. 1830, p. 11, no. 221; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 479, no. 221; Denning 1858, no. 221 (Arch of Trajan?);4 not in Denning 1859; Sparkes 1876, pp. 165–6, no. 221; Richter & Sparkes 1880, pp. 156–7, no. 221; Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 3, no. 11; Wurzbach 1906–11, ii (1910), p. 680; Cook 1914, p. 9; Cook 1926, p. 9; Thieme & Becker, xxxii, 1938, p. 340; Cat. 1953, p. 38; Brunetti 1956, p. 51, fig. 11b; Kitson 1958a, p. 219; Blankert 1978/1965, p. 101, under no. 38, notes 14–17; Stechow 1968, pp. 152, 215 (note 26); Salerno, ii, 1977–8, p. 412 (note 23), fig. 65.16, iii, 1980, p. 1089 (note 23); Murray 1980a, p. 123; Murray 1980b, p. 27; Howarth 1985, p. 46, fig. 29; Powell 1998, p. 26, fig. 11; Beresford 1998, p. 227; Steland 2001–2, p. 58, no. 14; Blankert & De Graaf 2007, pp. 16, 19 (fig. 9), 76, no. 6; Dejardin 2008, p. 21, fig. 15; Steland 2010, i, pp. 55, 139 (G 1, 20), 298 (under Z 2, 35), ii, p. 457 (G 121); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 240–42; RKD, no. 284582: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/284582 (May 28, 2017).

EXHIBITION
Woerden 2007, p. 76, no. 6.

TECHNICAL NOTES
Fine plain-weave linen. Buff ground. Glue-paste lined; the tacking margins are absent. The paint surface is in good and sound condition. The green areas are badly blanched. There is extensive craquelure, which is particularly noticeable in the sky, and an impact crack is visible in the top left corner of the sky. Previous recorded treatment: 1875, lined, repaired, surface dirt removed and revarnished; 1953, cleaned and retouched, Dr Hell; 1960, reported to Dr Hell;5 1990s, conserved, N. Ryder; relined, cleaned and restored.

RELATED WORKS
1) Copy, Philippson collection, dimensions unknown (photo Witt) .
2a) Preparatory drawing (?): Herman van Swanevelt, The Arch of Constantine, brush in brown, pen in brown, and grey wash, 200 x 259 mm. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, 81-130/10 [2].6
2b) Attributed to Jan Asselijn (previously Bartholomeus Breenbergh and Cornelis van Poelenburch), The Arch of Constantine in Rome, black chalk with grey wash, 389 x 315 mm. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, PD. 189-1963 [3].7
2c) Gerard ter Borch I, North side of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, ‘G.T.Borch.F in Roma. Anno 1609’, pen in brown ink (sheet in a sketchbook), 165 x 270 mm. Rijksprentenkabinet, RM, Amsterdam, A 866 [4].8
3) Herman van Swanevelt, Roman Ruins with the Arch of Constantine, inscribed ‘HERMAN VAN SWANEVELT / ROMA 1634’, canvas, 52 x 67 cm. National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, P.93-4 [5].9

DPG11
Herman van Swanevelt
Arch of Constantine, dated 1645
canvas, oil paint 89,8 x 115,6 cm
lower left : H. SWANEVELT . F . PARIS. 1645
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG11

2
Herman van Swanevelt
Arch of Constantine, 1629-1641
paper, brush in brown, pen in brown ink, grey wash 200 x 259 mm
Kansas City (Missouri), The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, inv./cat.nr. 81-130/10


3
attributed to Jan Asselijn
The Arch of Constantine in Rome
paper, black chalk, brown ink, grey wash 389 x 315 mm
Cambridge (England), Fitzwilliam Museum, inv./cat.nr. PD. 189-1963

4
Gerard ter Borch (I)
North side of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, dated 1609
paper, pen in brown ink 165 x 270 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch.F in Roma. Anno 1609
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. A 866


A view from the north-east of the Arch of Constantine, erected by the Senate in CE 315–16 to honour Constantine and commemorate his victory over Maxentius. Swanevelt shows it with the right column still missing.10 In the background is the eastern slope of the Palatine Hill.

The ruins of ancient Rome had been popular subjects for Northern artists visiting Italy since the 16th century. Along with Swanevelt’s View of the Campo Vaccino of 1631 (?) in Cambridge (see under DPG174, Related Works, no. 1; Fig.),11 produced shortly after his arrival in Rome, DPG11 is an iconic image in his œuvre. He evidently chose as his vantage point the second tier of the Colosseum, of which the edge of a stone arch frames the left side of the painting. Strollers and onlookers include figures sketching, perhaps fellow members of the Schildersbent in Rome.

Swanevelt had painted the Arch earlier, seemingly in 1634, from a similar angle but further away, and including the ruins of the Temple of Venus and part of the Colosseum (Related works, no. 3) [5]. While that picture (now in Tokyo) was painted in the late afternoon, the Dulwich scene takes place in the early morning, the rising sun casting long shadows on the ground. The inscription shows that Swanevelt produced the work after his return to Paris in 1641, but the inclusion of the Colosseum masonry in the foreground suggests that it was based on a sketch or sketches made in Rome. Anne Charlotte Steland pointed out that a sketch of the Arch in Kansas City may be one such source (Related works, no. 2a) [2].12 That this was a popular view for Dutch artists is shown by a drawing in Cambridge, now attributed to Jan Asselijn (c. 1610/15–1652; Related works, no. 2b) [3] and one in a sketchbook, dated 1609, by Gerard ter Borch I (1582/3–1662; Related works, no. 2c) [4]. In these cases the angle from which the Arch of Constantine is seen is very similar to the one Swanevelt took for DPG11.

Stylistically, the Dulwich painting reflects the monumental calm of Swanevelt’s later work. In his earlier images of ancient Rome he had shown more of the overall scene, but here he concentrates on the arch. And the intensity of the colours, compared with the pictures in Tokyo (Related works, no. 3) [5] and Cambridge (under DPG174, Related works, no. 1), reveals how far Swanevelt had travelled in the intervening decade. Light effects that he shared with Claude are not forgotten, but they are sublimated in favour of a greater clarity and naturalism.

5
Herman van Swanevelt
Roman ruins with the Arch of Constantine, dated 1634
canvas, oil paint 52 x 67 cm
location unknown : Herman Van Swanevelt - Roma 1634
Tokyo, National Museum of Western Art, inv./cat.nr. P. 93-4


DPG136 – An Italian Landscape

1645–8; canvas, 38.7 x 55.4 cm
Signed and dated, bottom centre left: H SWANEVELT FA/PARIS 164[5, 8 or 9?]


PROVENANCE
?;13 ?Sir Robert Strange collection, 1769, nos 72 and 73 (‘Morning’ and ‘Evening’, 19½ x 24 in. [49.5 x 61 cm]);14 Desenfans sale, 8 June ff. 1786 (Lugt 4059a), nos 111, 281;15 Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 19, no. 188 (‘Upper Room: West / no. 10; Landscape with figures, rocky Scenery – C[anvas] Swanefelt’; 2' x 2'4").

REFERENCES
?Strange 1769, pp. 130–31, nos 72 and 73;16 Cat. 1817;17 Haydon 1817;18 Cat. 1820;19 Cat. 1830, p. 13, no. 273; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 487, no. 273; Denning 1858, no. 273; not in Denning 1859; Sparkes 1876, p. 166, no. 273; Richter & Sparkes, 1880, p. 157, no. 273 (companion to no. 256); Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, pp. 34–5, no. 136; Wurzbach 1906–11, ii (1910), p. 680; Cook 1914, p. 81, no. 136; Cook 1926, p. 81; Cat. 1953, p. 38; Stechow 1968, p. 215, note 26; Salerno, ii, 1977–8, p. 412, iii, 1980, p. 1089 (note 23); Murray 1980a, p. 123; Murray 1980b, p. 27; Beresford 1998, p. 227; Steland 2001–2, p. 59, no. 22 (1648?); Steland 2010, i, pp. 57, 139–40 (G 1, 21A), ii, 469 (G 137; last number ‘5’, ‘8’ or ‘9’); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 242–3; RKD, no. 284583: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/284583 (May 30, 2017).

EXHIBITION
Bath 1999, n.p., no. 8 (A. Sumner).

TECHNICAL NOTES
Plain-weave linen canvas. Glue-paste lined. There are two paper patches on the verso of the canvas, corresponding to small holes in the left tree and in the sky; a 1977 letter refers to the holes as ‘war damage’.20 There is extensive old craquelure, particularly in the sky, but this is secure. The green areas have blanched considerably, and the majority of the retouchings that are visible in UV are on the trees and foliage. Signature and date have been damaged but not altered. Previous recorded treatment: c. 1978, cleaned and restored, treated for blanching, E. Friedrich.

DPG136
Herman van Swanevelt
Italian landscape, c. 1645-1648
canvas, oil paint 38,7 x 55,4 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG136


DPG136

DPG219


DPG219 – Italian Landscape with Bridge

1645–8; canvas, 38.4 x 55.4 cm
Signed and dated, bottom centre left: H SWANEVELT F/PARIS 164[?]


PROVENANCE
See DPG136;21 ?Skinner & Dyke, London, 24 Feb. 1795 (Lugt 5281), lot 80 (‘Swaneveldt – A ditto [Landscape and Figures], Evening’); Bourgeois Bequest, 1811 (not in Britton 1813 inventory).

REFERENCES
?Strange 1769, pp. 130–31;22 Cat. 1817;23 Haydon 1817;24 Cat. 1820;25 Cat. 1830, p. 13, no. 256; Jameson 1842, ii, p. 485, no. 256 (Swanevelt, A Landscape); Denning 1858, no. 256; not in Denning 1859; Sparkes 1876, p. 166, no. 256; Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 157, no. 256 (companion to no. 273);26 Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 59, no. 219; Wurzbach 1906–11, ii (1910), p. 680; Cook 1914, pp. 136–7 (‘dated indistinctly 1675(?)’); Cook 1926, pp. 136–7, no. 219 (date 1675); Cat. 1953, p. 38; Stechow 1968, p. 215, note 26; Salerno, ii, 1977–8, p. 412 (note 23), iii, 1980, p. 1089 (note 23); Murray 1980a, p. 123; Murray 1980b, p. 27; Beresford 1998, p. 228; Steland 2001–2, pp. 44 (fig. 31), 45–6 (1645 or 1647), 58, no. 21; Pijl 2007, pp. 60–61 (fig. 51), 76, no. 7; Steland 2010, i, pp. 57, 139–40 (G 1, 21B), 278 (under Z 1, 36), ii, 468 (G 136; probably dated ‘1647’); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 242–3; RKD, no. 212783: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/212783 (May 27, 2017) .

EXHIBITIONS
Bath 1999, n.p., no. 9 (A. Sumner); Woerden 2007, p. 76, no. 7.

TECHNICAL NOTES
Plain-weave linen canvas. Glue-paste lined. There is a small hole in the lining canvas in the bottom right quarter of the reverse. The lining has caused weave emphasis and the canvas has shrunk slightly, causing the craquelure to overlap in places. Like the other paintings by Swanevelt in the collection, this work has suffered from blanching of the green areas, although it is less widespread in this painting than in DPG136. Parts of the edges and the yellow sky on the horizon are overpainted. The signature and date are damaged, but appear genuine. Previous recorded treatment: 1952–3, Dr Hell; 1976–7, cleaned and restored, treated for blanching, E. Friedrich.

RELATED WORK
1) Preparatory drawing: Herman van Swanevelt, Italianate Landscape with a Bridge, pen and brown ink with grey wash, 156 x 247 mm. BM, London, 1900,0824.147 [6].27

As DPG136 and DPG219 are the same size and show a morning and an evening landscape in Italy it seems likely that they form a pair, as has been assumed since Richter and Sparkes in 1880, and they will be discussed as such here. DPG136 shows massive bent trees and dramatic cliffs that dwarf all the figures, illuminated by the morning light. It has been suggested that the two pictures show the same village but from a different viewpoint. However architecturally the two churches are completely different, and the two pictures can’t represent the same place. It has not proved possible to link the village with any known location.28 Some Italian landscapes by Paul Bril (1553/4–1626), about fifty years earlier, show a similar motif of a dark bridge with the sun shining through.29 That could have been the inspiration for Swaneveld’s DPG219.

It is debatable whether the pair is a study in contrasts, as is suggested by Anne Charlotte Steland in her catalogue raisonné: according to her DPG136 has a restrained colour scheme, while DPG219 is warmer, with the whole bathed in a golden light.

What may be a preparatory drawing for DPG219 survives in the British Museum (Related works, no. 1) [6].

There has been some minor debate about their dating: Stechow published them as ‘Paris 1644’, Murray gives ‘most probably 1645’, and Beresford ‘1645 or 1648’. Steland has suggested 1645, 1647 and 1648. Whatever the actual dating, the fact is that both pictures are typical examples from Swanevelt’s maturity in Paris.

It is possible that the pictures may be identical with pairs of ‘Morning’ and ‘Evening’ that were in London in 1769. Murray suggested that they might be the pair put up for sale by Desenfans in 1786, but that seems incorrect: those were probably the same as the two oval pictures that had appeared in Desenfans’ sale the previous year.30

DPG219
Herman van Swanevelt
Italian landscape with a stone bridge, dated 164[.]
canvas, oil paint 38,4 x 55,4 cm
below, right of the middle : H.SWANEVELT / F PARIS 164(1? or 7?)
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG219

6
Herman van Swanevelt
Italianate rocky landscape with fishermen on a bridge, 1641-1649
paper, pen in brown ink, grey wash 156 x 247 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1900,0824.147


Notes

1 RKD, no. 71215: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/71215 (May 12, 2020).

2 In GPID (May 27, 2017) there was one result for Swanevelt and Arch of Constantine before 1811: Henry Penton Esq. sale, Skinner & Dyke, London, 10 June 1800 (Lugt 6101): ‘Herman van Swaneveldt, A capital Landscape and Figures, including Constantine's Arch at Rome, with a View of the Palatine Hill and part of the Ruins of Caesars Palace.’ It is possible that this was DPG11, and that it was purchased by Desenfans and Bourgeois at this sale.

3 ‘Swanefeld. View of the Arch of Constantine, with a great number and variety of figures, which, as well as the architecture, are well painted.’

4 Denning alone has doubts about the arch; all other authors agree on the Arch of Constantine.

5 See 1990 report, Dulwich Conservation Files, DPG11.

6 RKD, no. 297768: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/297768 (July 12, 2020); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 241, fig. 1, under DPG11; Steland 2010, i, pp. 69, 298–9 (Z 2, 35); ii, p. 557 (Z 28).

7 RKD, no. 112510: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/112510 (May 28, 2017); see also http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.367354 (July 12, 2020).

8 RKD, no. 245201: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/245201 (July 8, 2017).

9 RKD, no. 285040: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/285040 (July 8, 2017); Blankert 2007, p. 16 (ill. 5); according to Steland 2010, i, pp. 26, 148–9 (G 1, 46), the inscription is ‘Herman Van Swanevelt – Roma 1634’; see also ii, p. 393 (G 11); Steland 2001–2, p. 58, no. 4.

10 The fourth column is also absent in The Arch of Constantine by Jan Miel, of the 1640s, in the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Birmingham (note of Xavier Salomon in DPG11 file); see RKD, no. 56569: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/56569 (May 28, 2017). Now all four columns are present; it is not clear when the right-hand column was restored; according to Peter Howell, in his book on triumphal arches (forthcoming): ‘The column on the north-east corner is a replacement of 1732–3 for that used for the organ gallery of St John Lateran in 1597’; G. P. Pannini in his print of 1743 shows four, which is correct if Howell is right: Richard Green 2012 (DPG11 file).

11 RKD, no. 52729: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/52729 (May 28, 2017).

12 Steland 2010, i, pp. 69, 298–9 (Z 2, 35), ii, p. 557 (Z 28). She believes this drawing to be by Swanevelt rather than Bartholomeus Breenbergh, to whom it was formerly attributed.

13 The search in GPID (3 Aug. 2012) for a pair of Swanevelt paintings gave one hit, in 1756: Christopher Batt sale, London, 15 April 1756 (Lugt 919), lots 56 and 57; they were sold from the Earl of Lichfield’s collection at Stafford in 1842 (Lugt 16674); according to GPID that catalogue mentions the provenance being the Batt sale in 1756, so they could not be our ‘pair’.

14 ‘The Morning and Evening. Two of the most desirable pictures that can be imagined of this master: they are well composed, and varied with a diversity of agreeable objects. The effects of nature are judiciously observed in both. The coolness of the one is finely contrasted with the glowing warmth of the other; and every object partakes of the influence of the rising or the setting sun. These pictures are enriched with a variety of figures, which are in general finely painted. Two feet wide, by one foot seven inches and a half high’ (c. 49.5 x 61 cm). See also under Provenance.

15 It is unlikely that the two Swanevelts offered by Desenfans at his private sale in 1786 were DPG136 (and DPG219), because their dimensions are larger than those of DPG136 in Britton 1813 (2' x 2'4"). NB: DPG219 seems not to have been depicted by Britton in 1813. Desenfans sale, 8 June ff. 1786 (Lugt 4059a), p. 6, no. 111 ('Swanniveldt; A landscape and figures; 2 ft. 4 by 3 ft. on canvas' ); and ‘DPG219’, p. 15, no. 281 (‘Swanniveldt; Landscape and figures; 2 ft. 1 by 2 ft. 7, on canvas’); the measurements include the frames, as they did in Britton 1813. There was also an oval pair: see note 30 below. The other Swaneveldts that were in Desenfans’ possession are too generically described in 1795: Skinner & Dyke, London, 26 Feb. 1795 (Lugt 5281), p. 10, lot 50 (‘Swaneveldt; Two – a Landscape, and a View from Nature, De Kooninck’); p. 11, lot 76 (‘Swaneveldt; A Landscape and Figures’), or the descriptions refer to other pictures: Desenfans 1802, ii, pp. 67–71, no. 107, and pp. 71–2, no. 108.

16 See note 14 above.

17 In Cat. 1817 two pictures by Swanevelt are called ‘Landscape’: p. 14, no. 265 (‘FOURTH ROOM – West Side; A Landscape; Swanefeld’), and p. 14, no. 270 (‘FOURTH ROOM – West Side; A Landscape; Swanefeld’). These descriptions refer to DPG136 or DPG219.

18 In Haydon 1817 two pictures by Swanevelt are called ‘landscape’: p. 395, no. 265 (Swanefeld. A landscape), and p. 395, no. 270 (Swanefeld. A Landscape. In the style of Claude). ‘In the style of Claude’ could refer to DPG136, but that is not certain.

19 In Cat. 1820 two pictures by Swanevelt are called ‘landscape’: p. 14, no. 265, and p. 14, no. 270.

20 Eva Friedrich to Patrick (?), 1977. Dulwich Conservation Files, DPG136.

21 The search in GPID (3 Aug. 2012) for a bridge by Swanevelt gave one hit: Peter Coxe sale, London, 12 Feb. 1801 (Lugt 6195), lot 45: ‘Swanevelt; A Landscape with figures crossing a bridge, a beautiful scene; Painting; Transaction Unknown, £21.0.’ However no measurements are given.

22 See note 14 above.

23 See note 17 above.

24 See note 18 above.

25 See note 19 above.

26 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 157, no. 256 (facsimile of signature): ‘The date on this picture would be of some importance for the history of this artist’s life if it could clearly be deciphered’.

27 RKD, no. 45690: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/45690 (June 2, 2017); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1900-0824-147 (July 12, 2020); see Hind 1931, p. 67, no. 14; Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 242, fig. 2, under DPG219; Steland 2001–2, pp. 45–6, fig. 30; Steland 2010, i, pp. 89, 278–9 (Z 1, 36), ii, p. 639 (Z 186).

28 Although Rieke van Leeuwen (in 2011, on RKD website) says that the bridge was inspired by the one near Francheville near Lyon (France). See for instance RKD, no. 259858: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/259858 (July 9, 2017).

29 These paintings often have Christian subjects, see Cappelletti 2005–6, no. 17 (1594); no. 17a (print after no. 17, probably circle of Jan Brueghel I), no. 20 (1595), no. 21 (159. [last number not legible]), but especially nos 33–9 (dated 1595–97).

30 Desenfans sale, Christie’s, 12 May 1785 (Lugt 3882), p. 6, lot 35 (‘Swanniveldt – Two oval landscapes’); Desenfans sale, Christie’s, 15 July 1786 (Lugt 4071), lot 20 (‘Swanniveldt in the Style of Claude –Two landscapes with figures’), bt ‘Debrun’ (J.-B.-P. Le Brun), £4 14s., or bt in.

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