Dulwich Picture Gallery II

RKD STUDIES

Follower of Rubens (and Anthony van Dyck?) after Titian DPG132


DPG132 – Sunset Landscape with a Shepherd and his Flock

Mid-17th century; canvas, 107.6 x 158.1 cm


PROVENANCE
?Jeremias Wildens inventory (Inde const Camer opde gaelderye (in the art room near the gallery), Antwerp, 30 Dec. 1653, no. 654: Een geschist Lantschap sijnde eenen Regenboghe van Van Dyck, no. 654 (A rocky landscape with a rainbow by Van Dyck, no. 654);1 ?the gentlemen Robyns and De Greeke, Brussels; ?John Bertels sale, Langford, 12 May 1758 (Lugt 1005), lot 59 (‘Lucas Van Uden and Rubens; A Landscape with Figures going over a Bridge – the Figures by Rubens’);2 ?John Bertels sale, Walsh, 8 April 1775 (Lugt 2393), lot 25 (Rubens);3 Desenfans sale, Skinner and Dyke, 18 Mar. 1802 (Lugt 6380), lot 187 (‘Rubens – A Landscape, Cattle and Figures’); bt in. Handwritten note in catalogue in The Hague, RKD: ‘64’. [i.e. 6 x 4 [ft]]; Desenfans 1802, ii, no. 87, £110.5; 4 Insurance 1804, no. 63 (‘Rubens – A large Landscape’). £500; Bourgeois Bequest, 1811; Britton 1813, p. 33, no. 352 (‘Closet to S: Drawing Room / no. 4, Landscape, shepherd & sheep in foregd. C[anvas] Rubens’; 4'10" x 6'4").

REFERENCES

Cat. 1817, p. 10, no. 166 (‘SECOND ROOM – East side; A Landscape, Evening; Rubens’); Haydon 1817, p. 386, no. 166; Cat. 1820, p. 10, no. 166 (Rubens); Hazlitt 1824, p. 36;5 Smith 1829–42, ii (1830), p. 200, no. 725 (Rubens; 105 guineas);6 Cat. 1830, p. 9, no. 207; Northcote 1830, i, p. 6;7 Passavant 1836/1978, i, p. 63 (Rubens);8 Jameson 1842, ii, p. 476, no. 207;9 Hazlitt 1843, pp. 28–9;10 Ruskin 1843, pt ii, sec. ii, ch. ii (‘Of Truth of Colour’) pp. 128–9;11 Ruskin 1846, pt. ii, sec. i, ch. vii (‘General Application of the Foregoing Principles’), p. 90;12 Waagen 1854, ii, p. 342 (Rubens; ‘A poetical and carefully executed picture’); Denning 1858, no. 175 [sic; Denning has confused the previous nos 207 and 175];13 Denning 1859, no. 175;14 Lavice 1867, p. 181 (Rubens no. 6. Paysage devenu tout noir (totally blackened landscape; is DPG218 meant?)); Sparkes 1876, p. 151, no. 175 (Rubens);15 Richter & Sparkes 1880, p. 143, no. 175 (under old copies after Rubens); Richter & Sparkes 1892 and 1905, p. 34, no. 132; Cook 1914, pp. 78–9, no. 132; Cook 1926, p. 74, no. 132; Burchard 1932, p. 86 (copy after Rubens); Herrmann 1936, pp. 22–3, 75 (note 72) (freie Kopie nach einem verlorenen Original des Rubens (free copy after a lost original by Rubens)); Cat. 1953, p. 35, no. 132 (Rubens); Müller Hofstede 1966, pp. 36–9, (fig. 6), 41 (notes 19, 24, 33) (Rubens, c. 1638–40); Jaffé 1966a (attribution to Van Dyck, c. 1621); Jaffé 1969a, p. 436 (note 2); Müller Hofstede 1969, p. 232 (note 19) (not Van Dyck but a late Rubens); Sewter & White 1972, pp. 90–92 (fig. 6), 95 (note 30) (attr. Rubens);16 Murray 1980a, pp. 54, 116 (attributed to Van Dyck); Murray 1980b, pp. 13, 25; not in Adler 1982; Cafritz 1988, pp. 119, 122, fig. 113 (Van Dyck); Beresford 1998, p. 100; Royalton Kisch 1999, pp. 10, 55 (note 2) (unknown pupil of Rubens);17 Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, pp. 207–8, 215; RKD, no. 56338: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/56338 (July 19, 2019).

EXHIBITIONS
London 1996–7, p. 125, no. 53 (C. Brown; attributed to Anthony van Dyck); Bath 1999, n.p., no. 4 (A. Sumner; Flemish School, formerly attributed to Anthony van Dyck).

TECHNICAL NOTES

Medium-grade plain-weave canvas. The ground is a warm grey preparation of lead white, charcoal black and ochre. Pigment analysis has demonstrated that the paint layers were built up in multiple thin layers, suggesting that the painting was worked on over an extended period of time. All pigments, including some bright dashes of colour that had caused a certain amount of suspicion, were consistent with 17th-century practice. Glue-paste lined; the original tacking margins have been cut. There is a later canvas addition of 8.7 cm down the right side. X-ray has revealed that the right-hand section was cut from another painting, a practice often associated with Bourgeois’ interventions; it is now hidden under the frame rebate. The paint layers have a history of cupping and flaking, but have been secured by the recent relining of the painting. The paint surface is very abraded and has undergone various campaigns of restoration in its lifetime (not all of which have been recorded). Previous recorded treatment: 1915, revarnished, Holder; 1945–53, cleaned and restored, Dr Hell (via RA); 1998, technical analysis, L. Sheldon; 1998–9, relined, cleaned and restored, S. Plender.

RELATED WORKS
Landscapes by Rubens
1a) Peter Paul Rubens, A Landscape with a Shepherd and his Flock, c. 1618–20, panel, 64.4 x 94.3 cm. NG, London, 2924.18
1b.I) (modello for 1b.II?) Peter Paul Rubens, A Wagon fording a Stream, c. 1635, black chalk and oil on paper stuck on canvas, 47 x 70.5 cm. NG, London, 948.19
1b.II) Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with a Wagon at Sunset, c. 1635, panel, 49.5 x 54.7 cm. BvB, Rotterdam, 2514.20
1c.I) Peter Paul Rubens, Pastoral Landscape with Rainbow, c. 1635, canvas, transferred from panel, 81 x 129 cm. Hermitage, St Petersburg, 482.21
1c.II) Studio of Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with Rainbow or Pastoral Idyll, canvas, 122 x 172 cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Valenciennes, P.Y.35 (on loan from the Louvre, Paris).22
1c.III) Lucas van Uden after Peter Paul Rubens (1c.II), Landscape with Rainbow, c. 1635, panel, 63.7 x 84 cm. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, GG_681.23
1c.IV) (in reverse) Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens (1c.I–II), Landscape with a Rainbow, c. 1638, Latin inscriptions, engraving, 334 x 451 mm (one of a series of twenty Small landscapes). Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp, RH.P.0059 [1].24
1d.I) (modello for 1d.II) Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with Farm Buildings at Sunset, c. 1638, panel, 27 x 39 cm. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, WA1855.163.25
1d.II) Peter Paul Rubens, A Landscape with a Shepherd and his Flock, c. 1638, panel, 49.4 x 83.5 cm. NG, London, NG157.26
1e.I) Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with a Draw-well, in or before 1638, panel, 28.5 x 43 cm. Louvre, Paris, 1816.27
1e.II) (in reverse) Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens (1e.I), Landscape with a Draw-well, 1638, engraving, 295 x 425 cm (one of a series of twenty Small landscapes). BM, London, 1891,0414.1281 [2].28
1f) Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens, Harvest Scene with Rainbow, engraving, 335 x 451 mm (one of a series of twenty Small landscapes). BM, London, R,5.36 [3].29
1g) ?Peter Paul Rubens, A Wooded Landscape at Sunset, c. 1635–8, canvas, 49.3 x 64.8 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (sale Christie’s, 4 Dec. 2012, lot. 19; formerly Neuerburg collection).30
1h.I) (pair of 1h.II) Peter Paul Rubens, An Autumn Landscape with a View of het Steen in the Early Morning, probably 1636, panel, 131.2 x 229.2 cm. NG, London, NG66.31
1h.II) (pair of 1h.I) Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with a Rainbow, probably 1636, panel, 135.6 x 235 cm. The Wallace Collection, London, P63.32
1i. Peter Paul Rubens, Polder Landscape with Eleven Cows, c. 1618–20, panel, 81.1 x 106.7 cm. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, 322.33
1j) Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with Cows and Sportsmen, c. 1635–8, panel, 113 x 176 cm. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, 2013.34
Landscapes by other artists
2) Attributed to Titian, Arcadian Landscape with Shepherds, c. 1530–35, pen and ink in brown, 302 x 434 mm. Albertina, Vienna, 1477 [4].35
3a) Attributed to Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi after Titian, A landscape with a shepherd playing a flute, c. 1630–50, etching, 310 x 439 mm (trimmed). BM, London, 1932,0709.80.36
3b) Valentin Lefèbvre after Titian, Landscape with Shepherds (also known as Le Flûteur), 1682, inscriptions, etching and engraving, 313 x 435 mm (one from a series of fifty-three prints, Opera Selectiora, with prints after Titian and Veronese). BM, London, 1868,0612.1409 [5].37
4) Anthony van Dyck, Landscape in the Manner of Titian, pen and brush and brown ink on cream paper, 335 x 540 mm. Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth, 959 [6].38
5a) Frans Wouters, Landscape with a Rainbow, c. 1634, panel, 35.9 x 50.7 cm. Royal Collections Trust, RCIN 404735.39
5b) Lucas Achtschellinck, Dune Landscape, monogrammed L.A.S., panel, 19.7 x 25 cm. Fondation Custodia, Paris, 7698.40
Details
6) Anthony van Dyck after Titian, Studies of Figures, pen and brown ink, c. 21 x 16 cm (sheet in the Antwerp sketchbook, p. 36r). Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth [7].41
7a) Anthony van Dyck after Peter Paul Rubens, Cattle in Pasture, c. 1618–20, inscribed in a 17th-century hand Ant. van Dyck, pen and brown ink, with brown wash, 31.8 x 51.5 cm. Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth, 964.42
7b) ?Peter Paul Rubens, Cattle in Pasture, c. 1618–20, annotated P. P. Rubbens, pen and brown ink and touches of grey wash, 340 x 526 mm. BM, London, 1895,9.15.1046.43
7c) After Peter Paul Rubens, Cattle in Pasture, inscribed P. P. Rubens, pen and brown ink, lightly squared in black chalk, 314 x 517 mm. BM, London, 1860,0616.90.44
7d) (after 7c or 7a) Paulus Pontius I in Peter Paul Rubens’s Livre à Dessiner, Cows, 1640–58, engraving, 222 x 329 mm (no. 16 of the series). BM, London, R,4.129 [8].45
8a) (man with a flute) Style of David Teniers II, Shepherds with their Flocks in a Mountainous Landscape, c. 1680–1720, canvas, 90.4 x 120.8 cm. Royal Collections Trust, RCIN 404778.46
8b) (man with a flute) Nicolaes Berchem, Sunset, 1660s, signed N. Berchem (N B linked), panel (cradled), 70 x 91 cm. Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, 2825.47
A Rubens landscape in a Dutch interior
9) Jan Steen, Interior with a man and woman seated at a table playing cards, signed, panel, 47 x 61 cm. Present whereabouts unknown (Naumann, New York, sold in 1990).48

DPG132
follower of Peter Paul Rubens and follower of Anthony van Dyck and after Tiziano
Hilly landscape with shepherd and his flock, c. 1640-1660
canvas, oil paint 107,6 x 158,1 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG132

1
Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens
Pastoral landscape with rainbow, after 1630
paper, engraving 334 x 451 mm
Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus/Prentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RH.P.0059

2
Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens
Landscape with horses at a draw-well, 1638
paper, engraving 293 x 423 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1891,0414.1281

3
Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens
Harvest scene with rainbow, 1633-1659
paper, engraving 335 x 451 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. R,5.36

4
attributed to Tiziano
Arcadian Landscape with Shepherds, c. 1530-1535
paper, pen in brown ink 302 x 434 mm
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 1477

5
Valentin Lefèbvre after Tiziano published by Jacobus van Campen
Landscape with shepherds with sheep, 1682
paper, etching and engraving 313 x 435 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1868,0612.1409

6
Anthony van Dyck
Landscape in the manner of Titian
paper, pen in brown ink 335 x 540 mm
Chatsworth House, private collection Devonshire Collection, inv./cat.nr. 959

7
Anthony van Dyck after Tiziano
Studies of Figures
paper, pen in brown ink 210 x 160 mm
Chatsworth House, private collection Devonshire Collection

8
Paulus Pontius (I) after Peter Paul Rubens
Studies of cows, after 1615
paper, engraving 222 x 329 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. R,4.129


DPG132 was catalogued as by Rubens until 1880, when Richter and Sparkes suggested it was a copy after that painter. In 1966 Jaffé proposed an attribution to Van Dyck, and it was as such included in the National Gallery exhibition on Rubens’s landscapes in 1996–7. However, DPG132 was not included in the large œuvre catalogue of Van Dyck’s pictures (Barnes, De Poorter, Millar & Vey 2004), nor was any other landscape. Van Dyck scholars are of the opinion that no painted landscapes by him have survived, although several are mentioned in 17th-century sources.49 DPG132 was not included in the Corpus Rubenianum volume about landscapes (Adler 1982).

The picture depicts a peasant leading a flock of sheep and two cows while playing a flute through a verdant and hilly landscape with a mountain in the distance. A double rainbow can be seen to the left of the composition, and in his 1802 catalogue Desenfans referred to a ‘fine print taken from this picture, called the Two Rainbows of Rubens. It comes from the cabinet of Prince Rupert’. The only prints after Rubens landscapes with rainbows seem to have been made by Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert (c. 1586–1659; Related works, nos 1c.IV [1]; and 1f [3]), but they depict other landscapes by Rubens, all of which show no more than one rainbow; in the inscriptions on those prints no mention is made of Prince Rupert or his collection. By 1830 Smith had already commented on the Desenfans catalogue of 1802 that he had never come across such a print.

The landscape is a combination of motifs of Rubens, Van Dyck and Titian. The landscape itself with its wide plains is related to several Rubens landscapes, with or without rainbows, with peasants. He started c. 1620, with for instance a landscape with a shepherd in the National Gallery, London (Related works, no. 1a). That is essentially a woody landscape, such as he also produced in the 1630s (Related works, nos 1b.I–II and 1g). Especially after 1635, when he had acquired the Het Steen estate, Rubens made several landscapes with wide vistas, somewhat reminiscent of the earlier Flemish landscape tradition. Some of these have rainbows (Related works, nos 1c.I–IV [1]; 1h.II), others don’t (Related works, nos 1d.I–II and 1h.I). Sunsets also have Rubens’s warm attention (Related works, nos 1d.II and 1e.I–II). While the landscape itself and the way the trees are depicted in DPG132 have many similarities to examples by Rubens, the flute-player and the cow are closer to works by Van Dyck, with his interest in Titian.

The central figure of the shepherd and his sheep derive from a drawing in the Albertina which has long been attributed to Titian, although some modern authors consider it to be a copy after Titian (Related works, no. 2) [4].50 The composition was engraved by the Italian Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi (1605/06–80) and later by Valentin Lefèbvre (c. 1642–80/82), a South Netherlandish artist, in 1682 (Related works, no. 3a, 3b) [5]. Van Dyck in Italy was interested in the composition; a drawing by him at Chatsworth reproduces the landscape and the shepherd but not the flock (Related works, no. 4) [6]. In his ‘Antwerp Sketchbook’ Van Dyck copied the two figures of the shepherds (Related works, no. 6) [7], of which the one with his flute also appears in DPG132.51 What the relation is between DPG132 and the Van Dyck sketch is not clear. Perhaps there is none: the artist of DPG132 could have independently combined the elements from the Van Dyck drawings and what he knew of Rubens paintings.

The cow in the foreground, rather oddly inserted in the flock of sheep, appears in two of Rubens’s landscapes, in Munich and Berlin (Related works, nos 1i–j). It was also engraved by Paulus Pontius I after a Rubens drawing (now unknown) in his so-called Livre à Dessiner (Related works, no. 7d) [8]. There are a further four nearly identical drawings, one of which, also at Chatsworth, is signed as Van Dyck in a 17th-century hand.

In conclusion: according to us DPG132 is by an artist who knew Rubens landscapes well (how Rubens depicted wide vistas, skies – especially sunsets – and trees), and knew the motifs of the flautist of Titian (via Van Dyck) and the cow of Rubens (via Van Dyck or the print by Pontius). Such an artist seems most likely to be among Rubens followers, such as Frans Wouters (1612–59; Related works, no. 5a),52 or a Brussels landscape painter such as Lucas Achtschellinck (1626–99; Related works, no. 5b).53

The provenance of DPG132 is not clear. Was it mentioned in 1653 in the house of the painter Jeremias Wildens (1621–53), son of Jan (there called a Van Dyck), or was it the picture said to be by Lucas van Uden (1595–1672/3) with figures by Rubens that was for sale in London in 1758 (see Provenance)? The provenance only becomes certain after the so-called ‘Polish sale’ of the Desenfans collection in 1802.

Rubens landscapes also travelled to the Northern Netherlands; we find one depicted in an interior by Jan Steen (1625/6–79; Related works, no. 9). In the early 19th century DPG132 was fairly popular among the Rubens pictures in the Dulwich Gallery: it is singled out by the German visitors Passavant (1836) and Waagen (1854), and William Hazlitt (1824) was enthusiastic: ‘an eloquent landscape by the same masterhand [207], […] with a graceful group of autumnal trees waving on the edge of the declivity above, and the rosy evening light streaming through the clouds on the green moist landscape in the still lengthening distance’.

DPG132
follower of Peter Paul Rubens and follower of Anthony van Dyck and after Tiziano
Hilly landscape with shepherd and his flock, c. 1640-1660
canvas, oil paint 107,6 x 158,1 cm
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./cat.nr. DPG132

1
Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens
Pastoral landscape with rainbow, after 1630
paper, engraving 334 x 451 mm
Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus/Prentenkabinet, inv./cat.nr. RH.P.0059

3
Schelte Adamsz. Bolswert after Peter Paul Rubens
Harvest scene with rainbow, 1633-1659
paper, engraving 335 x 451 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. R,5.36

4
attributed to Tiziano
Arcadian Landscape with Shepherds, c. 1530-1535
paper, pen in brown ink 302 x 434 mm
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv./cat.nr. 1477


5
Valentin Lefèbvre after Tiziano published by Jacobus van Campen
Landscape with shepherds with sheep, 1682
paper, etching and engraving 313 x 435 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. 1868,0612.1409

6
Anthony van Dyck
Landscape in the manner of Titian
paper, pen in brown ink 335 x 540 mm
Chatsworth House, private collection Devonshire Collection, inv./cat.nr. 959


7
Anthony van Dyck after Tiziano
Studies of Figures
paper, pen in brown ink 210 x 160 mm
Chatsworth House, private collection Devonshire Collection

8
Paulus Pontius (I) after Peter Paul Rubens
Studies of cows, after 1615
paper, engraving 222 x 329 mm
London (England), British Museum, inv./cat.nr. R,4.129


Notes

1 Duverger, vi, 1992, p. 495, no. 654, with many thanks to Jaap van der Veen who said that the reading in Denucé (1932, p. 169, no. 654), een geschift landschap, is wrong. As schist means ‘rock’ or ‘stone’, the translation of geschist would be ‘rocky’; email from Jaap van der Veen to Ellinoor Bergvelt, 21 Oct. 2014 (DPG132 file).

2 GPID (5 Sept. 2014); [Purchased by him out of the Collections of De Heeren (gentlemen) Robyns and De Greeke at Brussels]. The information in square brackets is on the titlepage of the catalogue.

3 Lugt online: ‘Rubens, a landscape, with a shepherd playing on his pipe and returning with his flock, the scene is rural and pleasing, and is the first idea of this master, something more than sketched, and in his fine style of colouring H. 3 ft 6 in; W 4 ft. 8 in’ (106.67 x 142.24 cm) + copy V&A: £14–14–0.

4 ‘To the right of the picture is seen a hill covered here and there with trees, principally on the summit. On the same side is seen, towards the bottom of the picture, a rivulet over which is a bridge, and on this side is advancing, playing on the flute, a shepherd followed by two cows and a large flock of sheep. The centre presents a rich pasture of the finest verdure, and mountains beyond, whilst on the left, and on this side, we see some young trees and an old willow lopped, shooting out fresh branches, and the root of which is discovered in parts, from apertures; the light of the sun strikes on one side of the sky, whilst the other announces rain, and presents two rainbows. There is a fine print taken from this picture, called the Two Rainbows of Rubens. It comes from the cabinet of Prince Rupert.’ As buyer ‘Elliott’ is mentioned, but it was bought in: the picture figures in the Insurance list of 1804.

5 ‘and here is an eloquent landscape by the same masterhand, the subject of which is a shepherd piping his flock homewards through a narrow defile, with a graceful group of autumnal trees waving on the edge of the declivity above, and the rosy evening light streaming through the clouds on the green moist landscape in the still lengthening distance.’

6 The description Smith gives is a paraphrase of the text in Desenfans 1802 (see the preceding note). Smith however remarks that he has never seen the print that Desenfans mentions.

7 In the note: ‘This Rubens has imitated in a fine landscape at Dulwich College.’

8 ‘Here is also a fine landscape by Rubens; the fore-ground occupied with trees, with a flock of sheep winding through them; a tempest gathering in the heavens.’

9 ‘in which are seen two rainbows. This singularity has given a name to the picture.’

10 Same text as in note 738, with the number ‘207’ added after ‘masterhand’.

11 §13. Its great extent in a landscape attributed to Rubens ‘Take, for instance, the landscape attributed to Rubens, No. 175, in the Dulwich Gallery [DPG132]. I never have spoken, and I never will speak of Rubens but with the most reverential feeling; I look upon him, taken merely as an artist, as the master of masters, alone and incomparable, and I fully expect that the world will see another Titian and another Raffaelle, before it sees another Rubens […]. The landscape I speak of has beyond a doubt high qualities in it; I can scarcely make up my mind whether to like it or not, but at any rate, it is something which the public are in the habit of admiring and taking upon trust to any extent. Now the sudden streak and circle of yellow and crimson in the middle of the sky of that picture, being the occurrence of a fragment of a sunset colour in pure daylight, and in perfect isolation, while at the same time it is rather darker, when translated into light and shade, than brighter than the rest of the sky, is a case of such bold absurdity, come from whose pencil it may, that if every error which Turner has fallen into in the whole course of his life were concentrated into one, that one would not equal it; and as our connoisseurs gaze upon this with never-ending approbation, we must not be surprised that the accurate perceptions which thus take delight in pure fiction, should consistently be disgusted by Turner’s fidelity and truth.’

12 §15. German and Flemish landscape. ‘It is to be noted, however, that the licenses taken by Rubens in particular instances are as bold as his general statements are sincere. In the landscape just instanced […] and in a picture in the Dulwich gallery a rainbow is seen by the spectator at the side of the sun.’ NB: this is not in Ruskin 1843.

13 ‘(Smith 725) “A poetical and carefully executed picture.” Dr Waagen. The Marquis of Hertford has the Rainbow Landscape. It was exhibited at Manchester. No. 21. It is half as large again as this. Cf: Desenfans. p: 27. Who says it is called “The Two Rainbows” & comes from the Cabinet of Prince Rupert, though Smith says he never saw the print alluded to by Desenfans. [Denning continues on the left page:] “Rubens” says Ruskin, “perhaps furnishes us with the first instances of complete, unconventional, unaffected landscape. His treatment is healthy, manly, and rational, not affectionate, yet often condescending to minute and multitudinous detail; always, as far as it goes, pure, forcible, and refreshing, consummate in composition and marvellous in colour […] It is to be noted, however, that the licenses taken by Rubens in particular instances are as bold as his general statements are sincere. In the landscape just instanced the horizon is an oblique line; in the Sunset of our own gallery many of the shadows fall at right angles to the light; in a picture in the Dulwich Gallery a rainbow is seen by the spectator at the side of the sun; and in one in the Louvre, the sunbeams come from one part of the sky, and the sun appears in another.” Ruskin. Modern Painters Vol: 1. p: 90. [end of text on left page]] Or: Ruskin MP I, pt. ii, sec. I, ch. 7, sec. ii, ch. 2. “The sudden streak and circle of yellow and crimson in the middle of the sky, being the occurrence of a fragment of a sunset colour in a pure daylight, and in perfect isolation, while at the same time it is rather darker, when translated into light and shade, than brighter than the rest of the sky, is a case of bold absurdity, come from whose pencil it may.”’

14 ‘Landscape. The Two Rainbows. Such is the title given to this picture by Desenfans. Vol: ii. p. 27. and he also asserts that it came from the Cabinet of Prince Rupert. But see Smith Cat: Rais: 725. Also Ruskin’s Modern Painters Vol: 1. p: 90.’

15 ‘This is probably No. 725 of Smith’s Catalogue.’

16 p. 92: ‘may very well be by Rubens and the figures and animals by another hand’ (the young Van Dyck?).

17 ‘Recent cleaning (1998) has revealed the painting to be of indifferent quality, probably the work of another pupil of Rubens, whose style it approaches more closely than Van Dyck’s.’

18 RKD, no. 9991: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/9991 (Aug. 3, 2019); see also https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/peter-paul-rubens-a-shepherd-with-his-flock-in-a-woody-landscape (July 29, 2019); Brown 1996, pp. 52, 54–6, 123, no. 19, fig. 48; Cafritz 1988, p. 123, fig. 115; Adler 1982, pp. 92–4, no. 23, fig. 72; Martin 1970, pp. 200–203, no. 2924.

19 RKD, no. 264767: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264767 (Aug. 3, 2019; as attributed to Rubens); see also https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/peter-paul-rubens-a-wagon-fording-a-stream (July 29, 2019); Brown 1996, pp. 74–5, 123, no. 21, fig. 69; Adler 1982, pp. 166–7, no. 57, fig. 140; Martin 1970, pp. 215–17, no. 948 (attributed to Rubens).

20 RKD, no. 5523: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/5523 (Aug. 3, 2019); Brown 1996, pp. 74–5, 123, no. 22, fig. 70; De Poorter, Janssen & Giltaij 1990, pp. 128–31, no. 39 (note De Poorter); Adler 1982, pp. 167–8, no. 58, fig. 141.

21 RKD, no. 10115: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10115 (Aug. 3, 2019); Gritsay & Babina 2008, pp. 272–4, no. 322 (note Gritsay); Brown 1996, pp. 78, 81, 125, no. 48, fig. 74; Adler 1982, pp. 131–3, no. 39, fig. 113.

22 https://www.pop.culture.gouv.fr/notice/joconde/06380000301 (Aug. 5, 2019); Adler 1982, pp. 135–8, no. 40, fig. 114; Foucart & Lacambre 1977, pp. 199–201, no. 153.

23 www.khm.at/de/object/0004d0b59e (July 29, 2019); Adler 1982, pp. 135, 138, under no. 40 (copy no. 2).

24 RKD, no. 264673: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264673 (Aug. 5, 2019); for another copy see BM, London, R,5.34: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_R-5-34 (Aug. 2, 2020); Adler 1982, pp. 133–4, under 39a (copy no. 3), fig. 111.

25 RKD, no. 264834: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264834 (Aug. 5, 2019); see also https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/landscape-with-farm-buildings-at-sunset-142678 (July 29, 2019): ‘It has been suggested that Rubens may have painted this sketch out of doors in the vicinity of Het Steen and used it as a study for his Landscape with a Tower at Het Steen at Sunset in the NG in London (Related works, no. 1d.II). It has also been affirmed that the sketch may not have been painted by Rubens but copied with variations by another artist from the work in London. There are arguments for both views.’ See also White 1999a, p. 123.

26 RKD, no. 10111: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10111 (Aug. 5, 2019); see also https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/peter-paul-rubens-a-landscape-with-a-shepherd-and-his-flock (July 29, 2019); Jaffé 1989, p. 347, no. 1193; Martin 1970, pp. 142–7, no. 157.

27 RKD, no. 10113: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10113 (Aug. 7, 2019); see also https://www.pop.culture.gouv.fr/notice/joconde/000PE008795 (Aug. 5, 2019); Cafritz 1988, p. 118 (fig. 108); Adler 1982, pp. 183–4, no. 69 (with wrong inv. no. in Louvre); fig. 153.

28 RKD, no. 264836: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264836 (Aug. 8, 2019); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_R-5-37 (Aug. 2, 2020); Adler 1982, pp. 183–4, under no. 69 (copy no. 2); fig. 154.

29 RKD, no. 10124: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10124 (Aug. 9, 2019); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_R-5-36 (Aug. 2, 2020); Adler 1982, pp. 150–51, under no. 47 (copy), with different dimensions.

30 RKD, no. 264746: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264746 (Aug. 5, 2019); Jaffé 1989, p. 350, no. 1217; Adler 1982, pp. 158–9, no. 51; fig. 134; Müller Hofstede 1966, pp. 38, 41 (notes 29, 30), fig. 7.

31 RKD, no. 10106: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10106 (Aug. 5, 2019); see also https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/peter-paul-rubens-a-view-of-het-steen-in-the-early-morning (July 29, 2019); Brown 1996, pp. 62–3 (fig. 58), 68–70, 125, no. 45; Martin 1970, pp. 137–42, no. 66.

32 RKD, no. 222961: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/222961 (Aug. 5, 2019); Brown 1996, pp. 63 (fig. 59), 68–70; Ingamells 1992, pp. 309–13, no. P63.

33 RKD, no. 24752: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/24752 (Aug. 5, 2019); Renger & Denk 2002, pp. 460–61, no. 322; Adler 1982, pp. 101–3, no. 27; fig. 77; Rooses 1886–92, iv (1890), pp. 389–90, no. 1201.

34 RKD, no. 10001: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/10001 (Aug. 5, 2019); Bock 1996, pp. 106, 298, no. 1032; Adler 1982, pp. 113–16, no. 31, fig. 89.

35 RKD, no. 294920: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/294920 (Aug. 7, 2019); see also http://sammlungenonline.albertina.at/?query=Inventarnummer=[1477]&showtype=record (July 29, 2019), where more literature is mentioned, as well as another print after this drawing; see also Rearick 2001, p. 67 (copy).

36 RKD, no. 300349: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/300349 (Feb. 25, 2021); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1932-0709-80 (Feb. 25, 2021); Bellini 2012, F.6.

37 RKD, no. 294930: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/294930 (Aug. 8, 2019); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1868-0612-1409 (Aug. 2, 2020); Jonker & Bergvelt 2016, p. 207, fig. 35, under DPG132; Jaffé 1966c, i, fig. CXXXIII.

38 RKD, no. 295349: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/295349 (Aug. 26, 2020); Jaffé 2002, i, p. 48, no. 967.

39 https://www.rct.uk/collection/404735/landscape-with-a-rainbow (July 29, 2019).

40 https://www.fondationcustodia.fr/ununiversintime/17_achtschellinck_7698.cfm (July 29, 2019).

41 RKD, no. 295350: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/295350 (Aug. 26, 2020); Jaffé 1966c, ii, figs 35v–36r; pp. 230–31; drawings made after the etching after Titian (fig. CXXXIII in vol. i), see Related works, no. 2; Held 1959, i, p. 12.

42 Vergara & Lammertse 2012, pp. 256–8, no. 64 (A.- M. Logan); Logan & Plomp 2004c, pp. 276–9, no. 100; Jaffé 2002, i, p. 54, no. 973; Logan 2001, pp. 24–6, fig. 22; Jaffé 1993, p. 145, no. 161; Adler 1982, pp. 104–6, under no. 27b (copy no. 1); fig. 81.

43 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1895-0915-1046 (Aug. 2, 2020); Logan & Plomp 2004c, pp. 276–9, no. 101 [NB: the BM inventory number given there is wrong]; Logan 2001, pp. 24–6, fig. 23 (copy after Rubens?); Adler 1982, pp. 104–6, under no. 27b (copy no. 2).

44 https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1860-0616-90 (Aug. 2, 2020); Logan & Plomp 2004c, pp. 278–9, under nos 100–102. Adler 1982, pp. 104–6, under no. 27b (copy no. 3), fig. 83. There is even a fourth copy in a private collection, published in Logan 2007.

45 RKD, no. 264558: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/264558 (Aug. 9, 2019); see also https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_R-4-129 (Aug. 2, 2020); Adler 1982, p. 105, under no. 27b (copy no. 5), fig. 80.

46 https://www.rct.uk/collection/404778/shepherds-with-their-flocks-in-a-mountainous-landscape (July 29, 2019).

47 Senenko 2009, p. 45, no. 2825.

48 Woollett & Naumann 1995, under Paintings sold in the past, in 1990.

49 Barnes, De Poorter, Millar & Vey 2004, p. x; Royalton-Kisch 1999, p. 10: not one of five landscape pictures by Van Dyck that are recorded in Antwerp collections is thought to have survived.

50 Many other artists found inspiration in this engraving, for which see Sewter & White 1972. There is another drawing in the Louvre: see Tietze & Tietze-Conrat 1944, pp. 326–7, no. 1974.

51 Burchard (1932, p. 86) first drew attention to DPG132’s relationship to this print.

52 Wouters was a pupil of Pieter van Avont and Rubens.

53 Achtschellinck was a pupil of Pieter van der Borcht (I) and Lodewijk de Vadder; see also https://www.degruyter.com/document/database/AKL/entry/_10070062/html (July 29, 2019); De Maere & Wabbes 1994, i, pp. 26–7; De Callatay 1960, pp. 171–88.

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